Domperidone in defective and insufficient lactation.
ABSTRACT The clinical use of anti-dopaminergic drugs to stimulate plasma PRL levels, to induce lactogenesis and maintain an adequate lactation has been widely suggested, taking into consideration the main inhibitory role of hypothalamic dopamine on PRL secretion. We therefore studied the effects of domperidone (DOM), a direct anti-dopaminergic drug with a low tendency to be secreted in the milk and which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, on inducing lactogenesis in 8 puerperal women with a history of defective lactogenesis (group A) and inducing galactopoiesis in 9 puerperal women who showed 2 weeks after delivery an insufficient lactation (group B). A placebo treatment was performed in 7 and 8 puerperal women with the same characteristics of group A and B, respectively. PRL plasma levels were assayed in basal conditions and after suckling from the 2nd to the 5th day of puerperium in group A and through a 10-day treatment in group B. In both groups domperidone-treated subjects always showed baseline PRL levels and daily milk yield significantly higher than those of the placebo group (P less than 0.01). The lack of any side-effects and the positive results suggest a high usefulness of such a drug in inducing and/or maintaining successful breast feeding, which is at present considered so important for a healthy development of infants.
SourceAvailable from: Lisa Marasco
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Domperidone is a dopamine D2-receptor antagonist developed as an antiemetic and prokinetic agent. Oral domperidone is not approved in the United States, but it is used in many countries to treat nausea and vomiting, gastroparesis and as a galactogogue (to promote lactation). The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have issued a warning about the cardiac safety of domperidone. Areas covered: The authors undertook a review of the cardiac safety of oral domperidone. Expert opinion: The data from preclinical studies are unambiguous in identifying domperidone as able to produce marked hERG channel inhibition and action potential prolongation at clinically relevant concentrations. The compound's propensity to augment instability of action potential duration and action potential triangulation are also indicative of proarrhythmic potential. Domperidone should not be administered to subjects with pre-existing QT prolongation/LQTS, subjects receiving drugs that inhibit CYP3A4, subjects with electrolyte abnormalities or with other risk factors for QT-prolongation. With these provisos, it is possible that domperidone may be used as a galactogogue without direct risk to healthy breast feeding women, but more safety information should be sought in this situation. Also, more safety information is required regarding risk to breast feeding infants before domperidone is routinely used in gastroparesis or gastroesphageal reflux in children.Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 10/2013; DOI:10.1517/14740338.2014.851193 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Breastfeeding is the optimal method for feeding a newborn. However, some mothers may have difficulties lactating. Domperidone is widely used as a galactagogue but to the best of our knowledge has not been approved by any health authority. The objective of this review was to assess the benefit-risk ratio of domperidone for stimulating lactation. The benefit-risk ratio of domperidone as a galactagogue was assessed following a literature search of the PubMed database up to July 2013. Four studies were selected to assess domperidone efficacy and demonstrated an increased milk production. The limited data (60 mother-baby pairs) and the moderate methodological quality of 1 study remain insufficient to conclude on domperidone efficacy. Regarding the safety of domperidone, 7 studies were selected that exposed 113 infants to domperidone through breastfeeding. No adverse effects were observed in 85 infants, and no information was provided for the remaining 28. The limited data available remain in favor of a safe domperidone profile in infants and mothers. However, in large studies focused on gastrointestinal disorders, domperidone is responsible for drug-induced long QT syndrome and sudden cardiac death. The use of domperidone as a galactagogue is worrisome as drug-induced long QT syndrome occurred mostly in women. In these circumstances, an improvement of breastfeeding practices seems to be more effective and safer than the use of an off-label domperidone treatment. © The Author(s) 2014.Journal of Human Lactation 12/2014; 31(1). DOI:10.1177/0890334414561265 · 1.98 Impact Factor