Article

Kidney disorders and hematotoxicity from organic solvent exposure.

Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health (Impact Factor: 3.1). 02/1985; 11 Suppl 1:83-90.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Short-term exposure to certain solvents, such as several halogenated hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates, ethylene glycol, ethylene glycol ethers, and diethylene glycol, may cause renal tubular necrosis. Tubular lesions with metabolic acidosis have been reported in addicts inhaling solvent vapor (eg, toluene). A Goodpasture's syndrome may be induced by acute or subacute exposure to solvents, but its incidence is rare. No adequate proof is yet available that repeated exposure to nonsubstituted organic solvents may lead to the development of different types of chronic glomerulonephritis, but the available epidemiologic data are suggestive of the existence of such an association. Only a few solvents have been reported to act on the hematopoietic system of humans. The hematotoxicity (aplastic anemia, leukemia) of benzene is well established. Some ethylene glycol ethers are also toxic to bone marrow.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
141 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the risk of chronic glomerulonephritis in subjects exposed to solvent vapours, a case-referent study was carried out. The case group, including 60 patients (44 men and 16 women) with non-systemic chronic glomerulonephritis, established by biopsy, was compared with 120 control subjects (60 patients with traumatic fractures and 60 patients affected by nephrolithiasis) matched by sex and age. Information on occupational and non-occupational exposure to solvent was obtained by questionnaire. The exposure scores drawn from questionnaires were significantly higher in the case group than in the referent groups for both total and occupational solvent exposure. No significant differences in non-occupational exposure were found. The odds ratio of chronic glomerulonephritis for occupationally exposed (score > 0) was 3.9 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.64-8.33). When IgA nephropathy patients (n = 27) were separately evaluated, an increased risk was found for both total and occupational exposure. Using a logistic regression model, a dose-response effect for occupational exposure was seen. The results support the hypothesis that chronic glomerulonephritis may be related to environmental factors such as exposure to hydrocarbons.
    British journal of industrial medicine 10/1992; 49(10):738-42.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective Benzene, as a volatile organic compound, is known as one of the main air pollutants in the environment. The aim of this review is to summarize all available evidences on non-cancerous health effects of benzene providing an overview of possible association of exposure to benzene with human chronic diseases, specially, in those regions of the world where benzene concentration is being poorly monitored. Methodology A bibliographic search of scientific databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scirus was conducted with key words of “benzene toxic health effects”, “environmental volatile organic compounds”, “diabetes mellitus and environmental pollutants”, “breast cancer and environmental pollution”, “prevalence of lung cancer”, and “diabetes prevalence”. More than 300 peer reviewed papers were examined. Experimental and epidemiologic studies reporting health effects of benzene and volatile organic compounds were included in the study. Results Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that benzene exposure can lead to numerous non-cancerous health effects associated with functional aberration of vital systems in the body like reproductive, immune, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, and respiratory. Conclusion Chronic diseases have become a health burden of global dimension with special emphasis in regions with poor monitoring over contents of benzene in petrochemicals. Benzene is a well known carcinogen of blood and its components, but the concern of benzene exposure is more than carcinogenicity of blood components and should be evaluated in both epidemiologic and experimental studies. Aspect of interactions and mechanism of toxicity in relation to human general health problems especially endocrine disturbances with particular reference to diabetes, breast and lung cancers should be followed up.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 01/2014; · 3.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We measured urinary excretion of albumin and retinol-binding proteins to investigate the occurrence of early renal dysfunction in 45 paint workers exposed principally to toluene, and in the same number of unexposed control subjects matched individually for sex and age. Two biological indicators of personal toluene absorption, namely urine hippuric acid and o-cresol, were also measured in the exposed subjects. A significantly higher level and increased prevalence of elevated retinol-binding protein in the urine of exposed workers was found, whereas no significant difference in urinary albumin concentration was seen between the two groups. Urinary concentrations of retinol-binding protein was correlated (r = 0.399, P < 0.006) with that of o-cresol, but not with hippuric acid or employment duration. The results suggest a dose-dependent early tubular effect due to toluene exposure that might be useful for monitoring individuals exposed to toluene at work.
    International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 01/1990; 62(1):43-46. · 2.10 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
0 Downloads
Available from
Dec 8, 2014