The determinants of physical activity and exercise.

Public Health Reports (Impact Factor: 1.64). 100(2):158-71.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Evaluation and delivery of physical activity and exercise programs appear impeded by the substantial numbers of Americans who are unwilling or unable to participate regularly in physical activity. As a step toward identifying effective interventions, we reviewed available research on determinants relating to the adoption and maintenance of physical activity. We categorized determinants as personal, environmental, or characteristic of the exercise. We have considered supervised participation separately from spontaneous activity in the general population. A wide variety of determinants, populations, and settings have been studied within diverse research traditions and disciplines. This diversity and the varied interpretation of the data hinder our clearly summarizing the existing knowledge. Although we provide some directions for future study and program evaluation, there is a need for research that tests hypotheses derived from theoretical models and that has clear implications for intervention programs. We still need to explore whether general theories of health behavior or approaches relating to specific exercises or activities can be used to predict adoption and maintenance of physical activity.

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    ABSTRACT: La présente étude vise à démontrer l'efficacité du programme Pentathlon en équipe pour stimuler la pratique d'activités physiques chez les filles et les garçons provenant de milieux socio-économiques différents. Ce programme a été implanté pendant six semaines auprès de 42 filles et 62 garçons de 5ième et 6ième années de cinq écoles de la région de Québec avec la collaboration de cinq enseignants. Ces écoles étaient situées dans des milieux socio-économiques défavorisés, moyennement favorisés et favorisés. Des groupes contrôles ont servi de comparatifs pour l'étude (N=99). Les résultats nous révèlent que la majorité des jeunes (77%) ont été actifs pendant l'implantation du Pentathlon en équipe, indépendamment de leur sexe ou leur milieu socio-économique. Ces résultats sont supérieurs à ceux des enquêtes sur l'activité physique des jeunes et ils offrent donc des perspectives intéressantes pour le développement des stratégies d'intervention qui visent une gestion autonome de la pratique d'activités physiques par les jeunes. Abstract
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the reasons for participating and not participating in an e-health workplace physical activity (PA) intervention. Design/methodology/approach – Semi-structured interviews and two focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of employees who enrolled and participated in the intervention and with those who did not complete enrolment, hence did not participate in it. Data were examined using thematic analysis according to the clusters of “reasons for participation” and for “non-participation”. Findings – Reported reasons for participation included a need to be more active, to increase motivation to engage in PA, and to better manage weight. Employees were attracted by the perceived ease of use of the programme and by the promise of receiving reminders. Many felt encouraged to enrol by managers or peers. Reported reasons for non-participation included lack of time, loss of interest towards the programme, or a lack of reminders to complete enrolment. Practical implications – Future e-health workplace behavioural interventions should consider focusing on employees’ needs and motivators to behaviour change, provide regular reminders for participants to complete enrolment and ensure that procedures are completed successfully. Barriers to participation could be identified through formative research with the target population and feasibility studies. Originality/value – This study combines a qualitative analysis of the reasons why some employees decided to enrol in a workplace PA intervention and why some others did not. This study highlights factors to consider when designing, implementing and promoting similar interventions and that could inform strategies to enhance participation in workplace PA interventions.
    International Journal of Workplace Health Management 11/2014; 7(4):229-246. DOI:10.1108/IJWHM-11-2013-0040
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    ABSTRACT: Aim of the study. To establish: 1) the amount of research on general motor fitness of 1 st -year students, conducted at selected Polish institutions of higher education between 1953-2010; 2) the number and kind of motor tests applied in this kind of research as well as the frequency of these tests during the period under study. Material and methods: The material for this research was composed of the publications on motor fitness of the first-year students taking part in specific motor trials applied at Polish tertiary institutions between 1953 -2010. A diagnostic poll method was used in the research. Results: Fifty-four original research cases conducted in the period under study were observed. Within this period the trials such as: "100m run", "jump from the run-up", "grenade throw" and " shot put" were more popular during the earlier years, while the trials such us: "zig-zag run", "standing long jump", and "medicine ball throw" were characteristic of more recent studies. Some of the most popular motor trials were: "standing long jump" – 38 cases, "medicine ball throw" – 30 cases, "zig-zag run" – 28 cases, "shuttle runs" – 9 cases, "short distance runs" – 12 cases, "downward bend from standing position" – 10 cases, and "vertical jump" – 8 cases. Conclusions: 1. Little research concerning the level of physical fitness of first-year students attending Polish tertiary institutions was conducted in the years 1953-2010; 2. The amount of motor fitness research carried out during this period fails to provide constant systematic assessment of the state of the students' physical condition, which is a result of too large dispersions in time and territory where the measurements were taken; 3. In the motor fitness tests conducted with 1 st -year students the determining variable was mainly gender, and only few research cases were found in which general motor fitness was analyzed according to environmental factors and anthropometric parameters; 4. The popularity of some trials as well as the frequency of their applications fluctuated differently over time.
    SSRN Electronic Journal 09/2013; 1:2202-946. DOI:10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.1n.3p.25


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