The Determinants of Physical Activity and Exercise

Public Health Reports (Impact Factor: 1.55). 01/1985; 100(2):158-71.
Source: PubMed


Evaluation and delivery of physical activity and exercise programs appear impeded by the substantial numbers of Americans who are unwilling or unable to participate regularly in physical activity. As a step toward identifying effective interventions, we reviewed available research on determinants relating to the adoption and maintenance of physical activity. We categorized determinants as personal, environmental, or characteristic of the exercise. We have considered supervised participation separately from spontaneous activity in the general population. A wide variety of determinants, populations, and settings have been studied within diverse research traditions and disciplines. This diversity and the varied interpretation of the data hinder our clearly summarizing the existing knowledge. Although we provide some directions for future study and program evaluation, there is a need for research that tests hypotheses derived from theoretical models and that has clear implications for intervention programs. We still need to explore whether general theories of health behavior or approaches relating to specific exercises or activities can be used to predict adoption and maintenance of physical activity.

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    • "However, LTPA was more strongly associated with health reasons than social reasons, which may suggest that health education is still a viable strategy in PA promotion with adolescents . This should be implemented as a component of multilevel interventions in order to maximize effectiveness by overcoming structural barriers at the various levels of the social ecological model (Dishman et al., 1985; Giles-Corti & Donovan, 2002). Moreover, although this could be a highly motivating factor, a focus upon the benefits of PA with regard to body shape should be approached with caution due to the sensitive nature of this subject, the pressure from society, and the potential for mental health issues to arise (Brown & Witherspoon, 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for participating in physical activity (PA) may have changed in accordance with the general modernization of society. The aim is to examine changes in self-reported reasons for liking leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and their association with self-reported LTPA over a 20-year period. Data were collected among nationally representative samples of 13-year-olds in Finland, Norway, and Wales in 1986 and 2006 (N = 9252) as part of the WHO cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Univariate ANOVAs to establish differences according to gender, year, and country were conducted. In all countries, 13-year-olds in 2006 tended to report higher importance in terms of achievement and social reasons than their counterparts in 1986, while changes in health reasons were minor. These reasons were associated with LTPA in a similar way at both time points. Health reasons for liking LTPA were considered most important, and were the strongest predictor of LTPA. The findings seem robust as they were consistent across countries and genders. Health education constitutes the most viable strategy for promoting adolescents' motivation for PA, and interventions and educational efforts could be improved by an increased focus on LTPA and sport as a social activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 07/2015; DOI:10.1111/sms.12528 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    • "Des études nous révèlent que la PAP est influencée par certains facteurs de divers ordres (Dishman, Sallis, & Orenstein, 1985; Sallis & Owen, 1999). Plus spécifiquement, la famille, les amis, le temps, la température extérieure, le contexte communautaire, etc., sont des facteurs qui peuvent influer sur la PAP d'une personne (Dishman et al., 1985; Giles-Corti & Donovan, 2002; Ridgers, Stratton, Fairclough, & Twisk, 2007; Stellino & Sinclair, 2008). Les jeunes semblent particulièrement influencés par certains facteurs sur lesquels ils n'ont pas de contrôle direct (Brodersen, Steptoe, Boniface, & Wardle, 2007), tel que leur sexe et leur milieu socio-économique d'origine (Aquatias et al., 2008; Moore et al., 1991). "
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    ABSTRACT: La présente étude vise à démontrer l'efficacité du programme Pentathlon en équipe pour stimuler la pratique d'activités physiques chez les filles et les garçons provenant de milieux socio-économiques différents. Ce programme a été implanté pendant six semaines auprès de 42 filles et 62 garçons de 5ième et 6ième années de cinq écoles de la région de Québec avec la collaboration de cinq enseignants. Ces écoles étaient situées dans des milieux socio-économiques défavorisés, moyennement favorisés et favorisés. Des groupes contrôles ont servi de comparatifs pour l'étude (N=99). Les résultats nous révèlent que la majorité des jeunes (77%) ont été actifs pendant l'implantation du Pentathlon en équipe, indépendamment de leur sexe ou leur milieu socio-économique. Ces résultats sont supérieurs à ceux des enquêtes sur l'activité physique des jeunes et ils offrent donc des perspectives intéressantes pour le développement des stratégies d'intervention qui visent une gestion autonome de la pratique d'activités physiques par les jeunes. Abstract
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    • "The literature about participation in workplace health interventions is not extensive. Dishman et al. (1985) seminal review on determinants of PA, in which they found that participation in PA and exercise programmes depended on type of activity (i.e. fitness, exercise or general PA), characteristics of the person and individual lifestyle habits, and environmental characteristics. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the reasons for participating and not participating in an e-health workplace physical activity (PA) intervention. Design/methodology/approach – Semi-structured interviews and two focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of employees who enrolled and participated in the intervention and with those who did not complete enrolment, hence did not participate in it. Data were examined using thematic analysis according to the clusters of “reasons for participation” and for “non-participation”. Findings – Reported reasons for participation included a need to be more active, to increase motivation to engage in PA, and to better manage weight. Employees were attracted by the perceived ease of use of the programme and by the promise of receiving reminders. Many felt encouraged to enrol by managers or peers. Reported reasons for non-participation included lack of time, loss of interest towards the programme, or a lack of reminders to complete enrolment. Practical implications – Future e-health workplace behavioural interventions should consider focusing on employees’ needs and motivators to behaviour change, provide regular reminders for participants to complete enrolment and ensure that procedures are completed successfully. Barriers to participation could be identified through formative research with the target population and feasibility studies. Originality/value – This study combines a qualitative analysis of the reasons why some employees decided to enrol in a workplace PA intervention and why some others did not. This study highlights factors to consider when designing, implementing and promoting similar interventions and that could inform strategies to enhance participation in workplace PA interventions.
    International Journal of Workplace Health Management 11/2014; 7(4-4):229-246. DOI:10.1108/IJWHM-11-2013-0040
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