Isosorbide dinitrate and nifedipine in variant angina pectoris.
ABSTRACT The efficacy of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) in variant angina is enhanced by the addition of a calcium antagonist. A prospective double-blind, crossover trial of ISDN, 40 to 120 mg/day, and nifedipine, 40 to 120 mg/day, in 19 patients with variant angina and various degrees of coronary atherosclerosis showed that although both agents were equally effective in controlling angina of vasospastic origin, some patients responded better to one or the other drug. Such response could not be predicted by demographic factors, ECG changes, or degree of coronary atherosclerosis. Since quantitative angiography done in a similar group of patients showed that intracoronary nitroglycerin, 200 micrograms, was a more potent vasodilator than sublingual nifedipine, 10 mg (p less than 0.01), the calcium antagonists may have a different mechanism of preventing variant angina attacks and may act in an additive or synergistic fashion when administered in combination with long-acting nitrates. Such a combination will increase coronary blood flow, reduce ventricular volume and end-diastolic pressure, and reduce systemic arterial resistance. Coronary vasospasm may be directly prevented by a general inhibition of smooth muscle contraction by the calcium antagonist. Clinical studies suggest that combination therapy significantly improves the long-term prognosis of patients with variant angina and reduces the need for bypass surgery. Thus combining ISDN with a calcium antagonist is a rational and effective treatment for variant angina.
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ABSTRACT: Unstable angina is a clinical syndrome that includes patients with new onset of angina, a change in a previous stable pattern, or the development of chest pain at rest. Generally, more than 90% of patients with this syndrome have significant fixed atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Other complex, interacting pathophysiological mechanisms may include coronary vasoconstriction, plaque rupture and thrombosis. Therapeutic strategies aim at either reduction of myocardial oxygen demand or restoration of coronary blood flow. Both alternatives have been suggested as treatment of choice. However, as long as the pathophysiological mechanism(s) is unknown in the individual case, the treatment will mainly be empirical or based on results from clinical trials of heterogeneous groups of patients with unstable angina with probably varying aetiology. The results from such studies indicate that some strategies may be of value, but others may even be harmful in treatment of patients with this unstable syndrome. In this situation nitrates seem to be a safe drug which may be used in most forms of irrespective of the underlying pathophysiological mechanism(s).Drugs 02/1987; 33 Suppl 4:131-9. · 4.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endothelin, a recently discovered endothelium-derived peptide, has been reported to produce potent vasoconstriction in various vessels of experimental animals. To study the involvement of endothelin in the regulation of vascular tonus in humans, isolated human mesenteric arteries were investigated by both pharmacological and immunohistochemical methods. The vasoconstrictor action of endothelin-1 was examined on ring segments of human mesenteric arteries. Endothelin-1 induced a slowly developing and sustained contraction, with an EC50 value (half-maximal effective concentration) of 2.9 x 10(-9) M, two orders of magnitude smaller than that of norepinephrine (EC50 of 3.9 x 10(-7) M), indicating that the vasoconstrictor action of endothelin-1 is about 100 times more potent than that of norepinephrine. The contractile effect of endothelin-1 was affected neither by adrenergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, nor serotonergic antagonists, nor by inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism. The vasoconstrictor response to endothelin-1 was effectively antagonized by nicardipine, a dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel blocker. Endothelin-1 profoundly augmented contractile response to Ca2+ in partially depolarized tissues. Immunohistochemical studies revealed for the first time that endothelin-like immunoreactivity was localized in endothelial cells of human mesenteric artery. The results of the present study indicate that endothelin-1 is one of the most potent vasoconstrictors in the human mesenteric artery and that it induces vasoconstriction via an ultimately accelerating Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. Since endothelin-1 can be located in human endothelial cells, it may play an important physiological or pathophysiological role.Circulation 07/1990; 81(6):1874-80. · 15.20 Impact Factor