Neurovisceral and skeletal GM1-gangliosidosis in dogs with beta-galactosidase deficiency.
ABSTRACT Beta-galactosidase-deficient siblings in two litters of English springer spaniel puppies showed a progressive neurological impairment, dwarfism, orbital hypertelorism, and dysostosis multiplex. An excess of GM1-ganglioside was found in the brain. Three abnormal oligosaccharides were present in samples of urine, brain, liver, and cartilage. Light microscopy of selected tissue specimens revealed cytoplasmic vacuoles in neurons, circulating blood cells, macrophages, and chondrocytes. Ultrastructural studies demonstrated that these membrane-bound vacuoles were of two types--one containing lamellated membranes and the other, finely granular material. These clinical and pathological findings are similar to those observed in human patients affected by the infantile form of GM1-gangliosidosis.
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ABSTRACT: Canine GM1 gangliosidosis is a fatal disease in the Shiba Inu breed, which is one of the most popular traditional breeds in Japan and is maintained as a standard breed in many countries. Therefore, it is important to control and reduce the prevalence of GM1 gangliosidosis for maintaining the quality of this breed and to ensure supply of healthy dogs to prospective breeders and owners. This molecular epidemiological survey was performed to formulate an effective strategy for the control and prevention of this disease. The survey was carried out among 590 clinically unaffected Shiba Inu dogs from the 8 districts of Japan, and a genotyping test was used to determine nation-wide and regional carrier frequencies. The number and native district of affected dogs identified in 16 years from 1997 to April 2013 were also surveyed retrospectively. Of the 590 dogs examined, 6 dogs (1.02%, 6/590) were carriers: 3 dogs (2.27%, 3/132) from the Kinki district and the other 3 dogs from the Hokkaido, Kanto, and Shikoku districts. The retrospective survey revealed 23 affected dogs, among which, 19 dogs (82.6%) were born within the last 7 years. Of the 23 affected dogs, 12 dogs (52.2%) were from the Kinki district. Pedigree analysis demonstrated that all the affected dogs and carriers with the pedigree information have a close blood relationship. Our results showed that the current carrier frequency for GM1 gangliosidosis is on the average 1.02% in Japan and rather high in the Kinki district, which may be related to the high prevalence observed over the past 16 years in this region. This observation suggests that carrier dogs are distributed all over Japan; however, kennels in the Kinki district may face an increased risk of GM1 gangliosidosis. Therefore, for effective control and prevention of this disease, it is necessary to examine as many breeding dogs as possible from all regions of Japan, especially from kennels located in areas with high prevalence and carrier frequency.BMC Veterinary Research 07/2013; 9(1):132. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The high sensitivity to oral RNA interference (RNAi) of western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte) provides a novel tool for pest control. Previous studies have shown that RNAi of DvSnf7, an essential cellular component of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT), caused deficiencies in protein de-ubiquitination and autophagy, leading to WCR death. Here we investigated the detailed mechanism leading to larval death by analyzing the ultrastructural changes in midgut enterocytes of WCR treated with double-stranded RNA (ds-DvSnf7). The progressive phases of pathological symptoms caused by DvSnf7-RNAi in enterocytes include: 1) the appearance of irregularly shaped macroautophagic complexes consisting of relatively large lysosomes and multi-lamellar bodies, indicative of failure in autolysosome formation; 2) cell sloughing and loss of apical microvilli, and eventually, 3) massive loss of cellular contents indicating loss of membrane integrity. These data suggest that the critical functions of Snf7 in insect midgut cells demonstrated by the ultrastructural changes in DvSnf7 larval enterocytes underlies the conserved essential function of the ESCRT pathway in autophagy and membrane stability in other organisms.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e83985. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: GM1-gangliosidosis is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder due to an autosomal recessively inherited deficiency of lysosomal β-galactosidase. We have identified seven American Black Bears (Ursus americanus) found in the Northeast United States suffering from GM1-gangliosidosis. This report describes the clinical features, brain MRI, morphologic, biochemical and molecular genetic findings in the affected bears. Brain lipids were compared with those in the brain of the GM1-mouse. The bears presented at ages 10 – 14 months in poor clinical condition, lethargic, tremulous and ataxic. They continued to decline and were humanely euthanized. The T2-weighted MR images of the brain of one bear disclosed white matter hyperintensity. Morphological studies of brain from five of the bears revealed enlarged neurons with foamy cytoplasm containing granules. Axonal spheroids were present in white matter. Electron microscopic examination revealed lamellated membrane structures within neurons. Cytoplasmic vacuoles were found in the liver, kidneys and chondrocytes and foamy macrophages within the lungs. Acid β-galactosidase activity in cultured skin fibroblasts was only 1–2 percent of control values. In brain, ganglioside-bound sialic acid was increased more than 2-fold with GM1-ganglioside predominating. GA1 content was also increased whereas cerebrosides and sulfatides were markedly decreased. The distribution of gangliosides was similar to that in GM1-mouse brain, but the loss of myelin lipids was greater in the brain of the affected bear than in the brain of the GM1 mouse. Isolated full-length cDNA of the black bear GLB1 gene revealed 86% homology to its human counterpart in nucleotide sequence and 82% in amino acid sequence. GLB1 cDNA from liver tissue of an affected bear contained a homozygous recessive T1042 to C transition inducing a Tyr348 to His mutation (Y348H) within a highly conserved region of the GLB1 gene. The coincidence of several Black Bears with GM1-gangliosidosis in the same geographic area suggests increased frequency of a founder mutation in this animal population.Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 01/2014; · 2.83 Impact Factor