New and emerging roles for psychiatric-mental health nurses, certification programs for graduate and experienced baccalaureate nurses, and the emergence of clinical nursing research are only some of the many changes occurring in the field of psychiatric-mental health nursing that have resulted in a burgeoning literature. Through a review of the most recent of this literature, the author highlights the current trends and issues in psychiatric-mental health nursing practice, education, and research, as well as the historical antecedents of many of the issues and problems facing mental health nurses today.
"Head nurses in mental health services are in a critical position to influence care. Pearlmutter (1985) states that "head nurses have a cooperative collaborative relationship with members of other disciplines who also network closely with clients" (p. 56). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study describes head nurses' perceptions of the impact of deinstitutionalization on persons with chronic mental illness. A phenomenological approach is the methodology used in this study. Data were collected by use of an in-depth semi-structured interview. The participants in the study were seven head nurses from a large psychiatric institution in Western Canada. Themes derived from the data were abstracted into three content categories. The content categories are contributing factors, impact on the individual and facilitating factors. Major themes under each of the content categories are described. The findings reveal that head nurses perceive that deinstitutionalization has negative and positive effects on the chronic mentally ill. The negative effects are stigma, homelessness and the revolving door syndrome. Positive effects of deinstitutionalization can be a better quality of life with adequate communication, patient preparation, education and resources/facilities in the community. The findings also show that head nurses perceive that some persons with chronic mental illness may require care in a psychiatric institution for most of their lives. The implications that deinstitutionalization has for nursing practice, education, administration and research are presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mental health nursing as a distinct clinical specialty appears to be headed for oblivion, unless adaptive responses are made to the current crisis. A systems model is used to depict nursing's response to the crisis; components of the model include within-system changes and environmental changes affecting the system. The entropic input of mental health practitioners' exodus to the private sector, integrated curricula, decreased graduate enrollment, paucity of research and accountability, unclear identity, lack of cohesion, and economic pressures precipitate the output of fear of extinction. However, fear of extinction may stimulate a response that would produce facilitative feedback to provide a strengthening transformation of the system. Recommendations regarding clinical practice options and educational preparation are offered.
Issues in Mental Health Nursing 02/1986; 8(1):1-13. DOI:10.3109/01612848609012508
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the past several years, conceptualizations of the mind have been challenged by a knowledge explosion in the psychobiological sciences. Such new knowledge continues to fuel a paradigm shift in psychiatry away from traditional psychodynamic models of the mind and toward ones balanced with a psychobiological dimension. The combination of psychodynamic and psychobiological fields of knowledge offers an opportunity for a holistic perspective on the human experience. Psychiatric nursing faces the challenge of integrating this new knowledge for the enrichment of its practice. To accomplish this complex task, issues need to be addressed in many areas critical to psychiatric nursing. Three areas are discussed in this article and include philosophy, communication of philosophy, and testing of philosophy. This article concludes with a discussion of some potential mechanisms to deal with the tensions generated by a paradigm shift in psychiatric nursing.
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