Social and familial factors in the development of early childhood asthma
ABSTRACT The role of social and familial factors in the development of childhood asthma by age 6 years was studied in a birth cohort of New Zealand children. Rates of asthma varied markedly with the child's sex; boys had twice the rate of asthma as girls. In addition, the factors associated with asthma varied with the child's sex. For boys, wheeze during infancy, early eczema, and parental asthma were all significant risk factors; for girls, the only risk factor was early eczema. Proportional hazards modeling of the data failed to show any significant associations between the development of asthma and a large range of other social and familial factors including breast-feeding, parental smoking habits, pets in the child's family, stress in the family, or family social background. It was concluded that asthma in early childhood appeared to be inherited to some extent, its age of expression was related to the child's sex, and it had a complex interaction with other forms of allergic disease. There was no evidence to suggest that the structure, practices, or dynamics of the child's family played a significant role in the development of asthma for children in this birth cohort.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the incidence and prenatal risk factors for allergic rhinitis among elementary school children in an urban city. Risk factor data were collected by questionnaire and direct physical examination. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratios of developing allergic rhinitis among children 6-13 years of age. From January 2006 to December 2006, we enrolled 1368 elementary school children in the study. Sampling was done by a multi-stage clustered-stratified random method to determine the study subject. All the children studied attended 12 elementary schools located in the six districts in Taipei, with two schools in each district. Odds ratios were adjusted for the confounding effects of gender, parity, maternal age at childbirth, maternal education, gestational complications, tobacco smokers in the residence, pets, carpets, molds, and air pollution. The incidence of allergic rhinitis in the study was 50.1% (685/1368). Factors like gender (p<.001), parity (p<.05), carpets (p<.025), and air pollution (p<.001) increased risk, while the other factors did not (p>.05 for all). Gender, parity, carpets, and air pollution increased the risk of developing allergic rhinitis among elementary school children. Other potential factors such as low birth weight, maternal age at childbirth, parental education, gestational complications, presence of tobacco smokers, and exposure to pets and molds did not significantly increase risk of developing allergic rhinitis.International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 03/2009; 73(6):807-10. DOI:10.1016/j.ijporl.2009.02.023 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on health are well documented in adulthood, but far less is known about its effects in childhood. The authors reviewed the literature and found support for a childhood SES effect, whereby each decrease in SES was associated with an increased health risk. The authors explored how this relationship changed as children underwent normal developmental changes and proposed 3 models to describe the temporal patterns. The authors found that a model's capacity to explain SES-health relationships varied across health outcomes. Childhood injury showed stronger relationships with SES at younger ages, whereas smoking showed stronger relationships with SES in adolescence. Finally, the authors proposed a developmental approach to exploring mechanisms that link SES and child health.Psychological Bulletin 04/2002; 128(2):295-329. DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.128.2.295 · 14.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Respiratory diseases are a frequent reason for using health care. In 1995-1996, diseases of the respiratory tract (ICD 460-519) contributed seven of the top 15 reasons for visits to physician offices among children under 15 years of age in the United States. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a wide-spread environmental pollutant that has been long linked with respiratory problems. This paper will review the available literature on the role ETS plays in respiratory diseases, including asthma. This review focuses not only on the respiratory problems caused by ETS, but also examines the influence of age at exposure on the consequences of ETS and the importance of the differing sources of ETS exposure. As ETS is a completely preventable form of environmental pollution, the success or failure of various types of interventions will also be reviewed.Respiration Physiology 11/2001; 128(1):39-46. DOI:10.1016/S0034-5687(01)00263-8