Selected perceptual norms and their relationship to reading in kindergarten and the primary grades.
ABSTRACT This study provides standardized procedures and norms for four perceptual-motor tests and their correlations with readiness/reading in grades K-2. Theoretical constructs and cognitive implications underlying these tasks are discussed. One hundred forty-four normal children in grades K-2 were tested with the Tachistoscope, Divided Form Board, Grooved Pegboard, and Auditory-Visual Integration Test (AVIT), using standardized procedures. Norms including means, standard deviations, ranges of scores, and percentiles were established for each test at each grade level. Except for the AVIT, the correlations between the perceptual tasks and readiness or reading were not only strong in kindergarten, but remained significant in grades 1 and 2. The data suggests that as reading becomes more dependent upon language skills, cognition gradually becomes more dominant. Beyond grade 2, it appears that perception remains a necessary but not a sufficient condition for learning.
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ABSTRACT: Controversy exists regarding the relation between visual memory and academic achievement. A masked investigation of the relation between visual memory and academics was performed in 155 second-through fourth-grade children (mean age = 8.83 years). Visual memory ability was assessed with the Test of Visual Perceptual Skills visual memory subtest. The school administered the Otis-Lennon School Ability Test and Stanford Achievement Test. Age and verbal ability were controlled in all regression analyses. Visual memory score was significantly predictive of below-average word decoding (p = 0.027), total math score (p = 0.031), and Stanford complete battery score (p = 0.018). Visual memory score showed a positive trend in predicting reading comprehension (p = 0.093). Poor visual memory ability (as measured by the Test of Visual Perceptual Skills) is significantly related to below-average reading decoding, math, and overall academic achievement (as measured by the Stanford Achievement Test) in second- through fourth-grade children, while controlling for age and verbal ability.Optometry and Vision Science 08/2002; 79(7):431-4. DOI:10.1097/00006324-200207000-00011
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ABSTRACT: In a sample of 39 children with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) and 106 typically developing controls belonging to three control groups of three different ages, we found that visual perception, motor skills and visual-motor integration explained a substantial proportion of the variance in either number fact retrieval or procedural calculation. Furthermore, children with MLD performed significantly worse on visual perception, motor skills and visual-motor integration in comparison with age-matched control children. A mild developmental delay in visual perception, visual-motor integration and (fine) motor coordination and a severe delay in motor skills were found in children with MLD. However, not all children with MLD have problems on these domains. They seem to be a heterogeneous group, not only with respect to their mathematical profile but also with respect to their visual perceptual, motor and visual-motor integration skills. Diagnostic implications are discussed.Learning and Individual Differences 08/2012; 22(4):498–504. DOI:10.1016/j.lindif.2012.03.014