Men (1306) who survived a first myocardial infarction (MI) were studied. The mean follow-up time was 6.5 yr, and at the end of the follow-up period survival status was known for all patients. By the time of the MI the prevalence of diabetes was 5.6%. Patients with and without diabetes were compared. There were no differences in the estimated primary or secondary risk. The cumulative survival rate 1, 2, and 5 yr after the MI was 82, 78, and 58% among the diabetic subjects compared with 94, 92, and 82% among the nondiabetic subjects (P less than 0.001). The difference remained even after allowance for age and estimated secondary risk in a multivariate regression analysis. There were no differences in mortality rates among patients with type I diabetes compared with type II diabetes, nor among patients treated with diet alone, sulfonylurea, or insulin, but the numbers were small. The cumulative rate of reinfarctions after 1, 2, and 5 yr was 18, 28, and 46% in diabetic subjects and 12, 17, and 27% in nondiabetic subjects (P = 0.004). A history of diabetes was an independent secondary risk factor among male survivors of a first MI with respect to deaths and reinfarctions.
"However, the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) does not differ for patients with diabetes versus without diabetes  . The poor prognosis associated with diabetes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been observed in some studies in spite of adjustment for age  , sex , "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the baseline characteristics, management, and in-hospital outcomes of patients in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with DM admitted with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and assess the influence of DM on in-hospital mortality. Data was analyzed from 1697 patients admitted to various hospitals in the UAE with a diagnosis of ACS in 2007 as part of the 1st Gulf RACE (Registry of Acute Coronary Events). Of 1697 patients enrolled, 668 (39.4%) were diabetics. Compared to patients without DM, diabetic patients were more likely to have a past history of coronary artery disease (49.1% versus 30.1%, P < 0.001), hypertension (67.2% versus 36%, P < 0.001), and prior revascularization (21% versus 11.4%, P < 0.001). They experienced more in-hospital recurrent ischemia (8.5% versus 5.1%; P = 0.004) and heart failure (20% versus 10%; P < 0.001). The mortality rate was 2.7% for diabetics and 1.6% for nondiabetics (P = 0.105). After age adjustment, in-hospital mortality increased by 3.5% per year of age (P = 0.016). This mortality was significantly higher in females than in males (P = 0.04). ACS patients with DM have different clinical characteristics and appear to have poorer outcomes.
The Scientific World Journal 06/2012; 2012:698597. DOI:10.1100/2012/698597 · 1.73 Impact Factor
"For example, heart failure is twice as common in patients with type 2 diabetes  compared with those without type 2 diabetes. Thus, the short term mortality rate of a patient with diabetes is reported to be twice that in those without diabetes [9,10] and patients with diabetes have reduced long term survival [2,11]. The relative risk of a primary MI is more common among women with type 2 diabetes than among men  However, there are currently few population-based estimates of the probability of survival following an AMI for people with diabetes compared with those without diabetes [2,13] and none look at time to re-infarction. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: People with diabetes who experience an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have a higher risk of death and recurrence of AMI. This study was commissioned by the Department for Transport to develop survival tables for people with diabetes following an AMI in order to inform vehicle licensing.
A cohort study using data obtained from national hospital admission datasets for England and Wales was carried out selecting all patients attending hospital with an MI for 2003-2006 (inclusion criteria: aged 30+ years, hospital admission for MI (defined using ICD 10 code I21-I22). STATA was used to create survival tables and factors associated with survival were examined using Cox regression.
Of 157,142 people with an MI in England and Wales between 2003-2006, the relative risk of death or recurrence of MI for those with diabetes (n = 30,407) in the first 90 days was 1.3 (95%CI: 1.26-1.33) crude rates and 1.16 (95%CI: 1.1-1.2) when controlling for age, gender, heart failure and surgery for MI) compared with those without diabetes (n = 129,960). At 91-365 days post AMI the risk was 1.7 (95% CI 1.6-1.8) crude and 1.50 (95%CI: 1.4-1.6) adjusted. The relative risk of death or re-infarction was higher at younger ages for those with diabetes and directly after the AMI (Relative risk; RR: 62.1 for those with diabetes and 28.2 for those without diabetes aged 40-49 [compared with population risk]).
This is the first study to provide population based tables of age stratified risk of re-infarction or death for people with diabetes compared with those without diabetes. These tables can be used for giving advice to patients, developing a baseline to compare intervention studies or developing license or health insurance guidelines.
BMC Public Health 06/2010; 10(1):338. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-10-338 · 2.26 Impact Factor
"In particular, the incidence of diabetes itself is growing at a rate of 6% annually (Partamian and Bradley, 1965; Kopelman and Hitman, 1998; Kopelman, 2000). This is disconcerting because diabetes is associated with a high incidence of complications, including heart disease and stroke (Kannel and McGee, 1979; Gwilt et al., 1985; Ulvenstam et al., 1985; Ingelsson et al., 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The central nervous system mediates energy balance (energy intake and energy expenditure) in the body; the hypothalamus has a key role in this process. Recent evidence has demonstrated an important role for hypothalamic malonyl CoA in mediating energy balance. Malonyl CoA is generated by the carboxylation of acetyl CoA by acetyl CoA carboxylase and is then either incorporated into long-chain fatty acids by fatty acid synthase, or converted back to acetyl-CoA by malonyl CoA decarboxylase. Increased hypothalamic malonyl CoA is an indicator of energy surplus, resulting in a decrease in food intake and an increase in energy expenditure. In contrast, a decrease in hypothalamic malonyl CoA signals an energy deficit, resulting in an increased appetite and a decrease in body energy expenditure. A number of hormonal and neural orexigenic and anorexigenic signaling pathways have now been shown to be associated with changes in malonyl CoA levels in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. Despite compelling evidence that malonyl CoA is an important mediator in the hypothalamic ARC control of food intake and regulation of energy balance, the mechanism(s) by which this occurs has not been established. Malonyl CoA inhibits carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), and it has been proposed that the substrate of CPT-1, long-chain acyl CoA(s), may act as a mediator(s) of appetite and energy balance. However, recent evidence has challenged the role of long-chain acyl CoA(s) in this process, as well as the involvement of CPT-1 in hypothalamic malonyl CoA signaling. A better understanding of how malonyl CoA regulates energy balance should provide novel approaches to targeting intermediary metabolism in the hypothalamus as a mechanism to control appetite and body weight. Here, we review the data supporting an important role for malonyl CoA in mediating hypothalamic control of energy balance, and recent evidence suggesting that targeting malonyl CoA synthesis or degradation may be a novel approach to favorably modify appetite and weight gain.
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