Aetiology and outcome of severe community-acquired pneumonia.
ABSTRACT Between January 1972 and December 1981, 50 patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia were admitted to the intensive care unit of a district general hospital. A causal pathogen was identified in 41 cases (82%). Streptococcus pneumoniae (16 cases), Legionella pneumophila (15 cases) and Staphylococcus aureus (5 cases) were the commonest. Assisted ventilation was required in 44 patients, of whom 25 died (57%). All 5 patients with staphylococcal pneumonia and 12(75%) with pneumococcal pneumonia died. Only 5 (33%) with Legionnaires' disease died. Mortality was significantly associated with age. Recommendations for the management of severe pneumonia are made.
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ABSTRACT: This document is an update of Guidelines published in 2005 and now includes scientific publications through to May 2010. It provides evidence-based recommendations for the most common management questions occurring in routine clinical practice in the management of adult patients with LRTI. Topics include management outside hospital, management inside hospital (including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), acute exacerbations of bronchiectasis) and prevention. Background sections and graded evidence tables are also included. The target audience for the Guideline is thus all those whose routine practice includes the management of adult LRTI.Clinical Microbiology and Infection 11/2011; 17 Suppl 6:E1-59. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective was to compare outcomes associated with early, late, and no admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This was a post hoc analysis of the original data from the Emergency Department Community-Acquired Pneumonia (EDCAP) and Pneumocom-1 prospective multicenter cohort studies of adult patients hospitalized with CAP. Propensity score-adjusted analysis was used to compare 28-day mortality and hospital length of stay (LOS) for 199, 144, and 2,215 patients with early (i.e., ICU admission on the day of emergency department [ED] presentation), late, and no ICU admission. Unadjusted 28-day mortality rates were 13.1, 19.4, and 5.7% for early, late, and no ICU admissions, respectively (p < 0.001). After adjusting for quintile of propensity score, the odds of 28-day mortality were higher for late ICU admissions relative to early ICU admissions (odds ratio [OR] = 2.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.42 to 4.90), and no ICU admissions (OR = 3.40; 95% CI = 2.11 to 5.48), but did not differ between early and no ICU admissions (OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 0.79 to 2.09). The median hospital LOS was 10 days for early (interquartile range [IQR] = 7 to 18), 15 days for late (IQR 9 to 23), and 6 days (IQR 4 to 9) for no ICU admissions (p < 0.001). This study suggests that late but not early admission to the ICU is associated with higher 28-day mortality for patients hospitalized with CAP. Patients admitted to the ICU have longer hospital LOS in comparison to those managed on the wards, particularly if they are admitted late to the ICU.Academic Emergency Medicine 03/2012; 19(3):294-303. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) exhibits mortality rates, between 20% and 50% in severe cases. Biomarkers are useful tools for searching for antibiotic therapy modifications and for CAP diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up treatment. This non-systematic state-of-the-art review presents the biological and clinical features of biomarkers in CAP patients, including procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, copeptin, pro-ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide), adrenomedullin, cortisol and D-dimers.Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 11/2012; 67(11):1321-5. · 1.59 Impact Factor