Aetiology and outcome of severe community-acquired pneumonia.
ABSTRACT Between January 1972 and December 1981, 50 patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia were admitted to the intensive care unit of a district general hospital. A causal pathogen was identified in 41 cases (82%). Streptococcus pneumoniae (16 cases), Legionella pneumophila (15 cases) and Staphylococcus aureus (5 cases) were the commonest. Assisted ventilation was required in 44 patients, of whom 25 died (57%). All 5 patients with staphylococcal pneumonia and 12(75%) with pneumococcal pneumonia died. Only 5 (33%) with Legionnaires' disease died. Mortality was significantly associated with age. Recommendations for the management of severe pneumonia are made.
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ABSTRACT: Respiratory tract infections are among the most common illnesses leading to medical consultation, and are associated with significant mortality. Community-acquired pneumonia is a common illness and, while Streptococcus pneumoniae continues to be the most frequent causative agent, atypical pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Legionella species are now identified as additional common aetiological agents. Since clinical and roentgenographic features poorly predict the aetiological agent in most cases of community-acquired pneumonia, empirical therapy is generally recommended. Nosocomial pneumonia is the second most common hospital-acquired infection and is associated with significant mortality. Aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and Staphylococcus aureus are the predominant causative pathogens. New techniques to improve the diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia have been introduced, but their role has not been entirely clarified. Therapy directed toward the most likely pathogens (aerobic Gram-negative species and S. aureus) on an empirical basis is recommended until more specific information is obtained. Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis should be treated with antimicrobial therapy directed toward S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae or Moraxella catarrhalis. Because of the emergence of β-lactamase-producing strains of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, the choice of an antimicrobial agent has to be carefully considered. Group A β-haemolytic streptococci are the most common cause of bacterial pharyngitis and penicillin remains the drug of choice. Patients suffering from otitis media and sinusitis are infected with the same organisms as those patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and antibacterial choices are therefore similar.Drug Investigation. 12/1993; 6(1).
Article: IntroductionRespiratory Medicine. 95:S2–S4.
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ABSTRACT: Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most common infectious reason for admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The GenOSept study was designed to determine genetic influences on sepsis outcome. Phenotypic data was recorded using a robust clinical database allowing a contemporary analysis of the clinical characteristics, microbiology, outcomes and independent risk factors in patients with severe CAP admitted to ICUs across Europe. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine mortality rates. A Cox Proportional Hazards (PH) model was used to identify variables independently associated with 28-day and six-month mortality. Data from 1166 patients admitted to 102 centres across 17 countries was extracted. Median age was 64 years, 62% were male. Mortality rate at 28 days was 17%, rising to 27% at six months. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the commonest organism isolated (28% of cases) with no organism identified in 36%. Independent risk factors associated with an increased risk of death at six months included APACHE II score (hazard ratio, HR, 1.03; confidence interval, CI, 1.01-1.05), bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (HR1.44; CI 1.11-1.87) and ventilator support (HR 3.04; CI 1.64-5.62). Haematocrit, pH and urine volume on day one were all associated with a worse outcome. The mortality rate in patients with severe CAP admitted to European ICUs was 27% at six months. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the commonest organism isolated. In many cases the infecting organism was not identified. Ventilator support, the presence of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, lower haematocrit, urine volume and pH on admission were independent predictors of a worse outcome.Critical care (London, England) 04/2014; 18(2):R58. · 4.72 Impact Factor
Eur Respir J 1998; 12: 113–115
Printed in UK - all rights reserved
Copyright ©ERS Journals Ltd 1998
European Respiratory Journal
ISSN 0903 - 1936
Aetiology and outcome of severe community-acquired
pneumonia in Singapore
Y-K. Tan, K-L. Khoo, S-P . Chin, Y-Y. Ong
Severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) occurs
in approximately 18–36% of all community-acquired pneu-
monia (CAP) [1–3] and is associated with a mortality of
up to 58% . This condition has considerable economi-
cal impact because of the need for intensive care monitor-
ing and mechanical ventilation, the loss of productivity
through prolonged hospitalization and the loss of life. The
most common organisms responsible for SCAP in the
West are Streptococcus pneumoniae, gram-negative bacilli
and Legionella pneumophila. Haemophilus influenzae and
Staphylococcus aureus are less common causes of SCAP
[4, 5]. Guidelines [6–8] now exist for the initial empi-
rical management of SCAP, but there may be variation in
the aetiological agents in different geographical areas
and, therefore, provision for this variation may be neces-
sary when treating patients in different geographical re-
There is very little literature on the aetiology of SCAP
in Asia [9, 10]. The present study aimed to look at
whether there is a difference between the aetiological
agents in SCAP in an Asian country and those in the West,
where most published guidelines originate. If the aetiolog-
ical agents in the Asian community were found to be dif-
ferent from those in the West, such information should be
added to the recommendations for initial antimicrobial
agents from the consensus of the American, British and
Canadian Thoracic Societies.
Subjects and methods
This was a retrospective study of 57 consecutive pati-
ents admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Singapore
General Hospital from January 1989 to May 1993 with the
diagnosis of SCAP. A diagnosis of CAP was made when
there was an acute lower respiratory tract infection with an
onset before admission to hospital, associated with clini-
cal and radiological evidence of pulmonary consolidation
within 48 h of admission. Patients >12 yrs of age and those
without a history of recent hospitalization within a month
were eligible. Patients were excluded if they had pulmonary
oedema, aspiration pneumonia, underlying immunocom-
promised states, such as malignancy, organ transplantation,
infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV),
underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),
bronchiectasis, or restrictive lung disease. Although COPD
is a risk factor for CAP, not all such patients with SCAP
were routinely admitted to the ICU because of limited re-
sources, and they were thus excluded from the analysis.
Aetiology and outcome of severe community-acquired pneumonia in Singapore. Y-K. Tan,
K-L. Khoo, S-P. Chin, Y-Y. Ong. ©ERS Journals Ltd 1998.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the aetiology and outcome of
severe community-acquired pneumonia, and to assess whether the existing guidelines
for initial antimicrobial therapy are being applied.
The records of 57 consecutive nonimmunocompromised patients admitted to the
medical intensive care unit (ICU) between January 1989 and May 1993 with this
diagnosis were reviewed. The microbiological data, chest radiographic changes and
outcome were analysed.
Nine (16%) of the 57 patients had pulmonary tuberculosis. When these patients
were excluded from further analysis, a microbiological diagnosis was made in 41
(72%) cases. The most commonest pathogens were Burkholderia pseudomallei (n=10),
Klebsiella spp. (n=5) and Staphylococcus aureus (n=5), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n=4)
and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=2) were less common. This microbiological spec-
trum was quite different from that in the West, where the incidence of S. pneumoniae
was higher. Also, when pulmonary tuberculosis was excluded, the mortality (67%)
was much higher than that in other series. This was attributed to the high incidence
of unrecognized B. pseudomallei infection, which is associated with a very high mor-
tality in the region under study.
In addition to applying published guidelines on severe community-acquired pneu-
monia, the endemicity of certain organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and
Burkholderia pseudomallei in different geographical regions needs to be considered
when choosing initial empirical antimicrobial therapy.
Eur Respir J 1998; 12: 113–115.
Dept of Respiratory and Critical Care Med-
icine, Singapore General Hospital, Singa-
Correspondence: Y-K. Tan
Dept of Respiratory and Critical Care Med-
Singapore General Hospital
Fax: 65 2271736
Keywords: Burkholderia pseudomallei
initial empirical antimicrobial therapy
severe community-acquired pneumonia
Received: September 2 1997
Accepted after revision March 9 1998
Y-K. TAN ET AL.
Patients who were admitted from chronic care facilities
such as nursing homes were also excluded. ICU admis-
sions were for mechanical ventilation, potential ventila-
tory support, or intensive medical and nursing care and
The data recorded included age and sex, history of smok-
ing, diabetes mellitus and alcohol misuse, chest radiogra-
phic changes, results of microbiological investigations, and
outcome. The microbiological data were based primarily
on sputum and/or endotracheal aspirate Gram-stain and cul-
ture, acid-fast bacilli smear and mycobacterial cultures,
blood cultures, and serology for Mycoplasma and Legio-
nella, taken within 24 h of admission to hospital. Pleural
fluid cultures, bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage
(BAL) were also performed if indicated.
A definitive diagnosis of the aetiological agent was
made when either the blood cultures or the pleural fluid
cultures were positive, or when the acid-fast bacilli smear
or mycobacterial cultures in sputum were positive. A pro-
bable diagnosis of the aetiological agent was made when
there was: 1) a four-fold rise in mycoplasma serology or a
single titre of 1:128 in the presence of cold agglutinins; or
2) a four-fold rise in Legionella serology or a single titre
of 1:256 or higher. A probable diagnosis was also made
when sputum, endotracheal aspirate and BAL cultures were
A total of 57 patients were identified during the study
period (table 1). Nine patients had active pulmonary
tuberculosis based on acid-fast bacilli smear or mycobac-
terial cultures from sputum. After excluding these pati-
ents, 48 patients remained (35 males and 13 females) with
SCAP. Their mean (±SD) age was 53±18 yrs (range 12–86
yrs). All but two required mechanical ventilation and their
mean length of stay in the ICU was 9.1±9.0 days. Twenty
(42%) were present smokers of exsmokers, 14 (29%) had
diabetes mellitus and six (12%) had a history of alcohol
After excluding pulmonary tuberculosis, the top three
causative pathogens in this series were B. pseudomallei
(n=10), S. aureus (n=4) and Klebsiella spp. (n=4). Five of
the patients with B. pseudomallei infection (50%) had dia-
betes mellitus and one had a history of alcohol misuse.
The overall mortality was 61%. If pulmonary tuberculosis
was excluded, the mortality was 67%.
In this study of patients with SCAP admitted to the
ICU, 9 patients had pneumonia due to M. tuberculosis.
Although rare in the West, this agent has also been re-
ported in a few other Asian countries [9, 10]. This aetio-
logical agent should thus still be considered in patients
presenting with CAP in countries where tuberculosis is
endemic. Ten patients had pneumonia due to B. pseudo-
mallei. This infection is endemic in many south-east
Asian countries [11, 12] and northern Australia . This
organism was found by another centre in Singapore to
cause 7% of SCAP cases . All patients who had this
infection died. The antibiotics of choice are a combination
of intravenous ceftazidime and oral doxycline .
Regarding the remaining pathogens, the numbers were too
small to make any significant conclusion.
The present series showed that the aetiological agent
could be identified in a large percentage of patients (74%).
This was because a large number of patients with SCAP
were bacteraemic and it emphasizes the need for routine
blood cultures in patients with SCAP. Some prospective
studies have made no aetiological diagnosis in 31–61% of
patients [15, 16].
The mortality of patients with SCAP was much higher
in the present series than in other studies and was as high
as the mortality (63%) in another centre in Singapore .
This was attributed to the very high mortality associated
with unsuspected B. pseudomallei infection.
The findings in the present series were further strength-
ened by similar findings in another retrospective study by
a different centre in Singapore . In addition to the rec-
ommendations by the American, Canadian and British
Thoracic Societies, the endemicity of certain organisms in
different geographical region needs to be considered. For
instance, in south-east Asian countries and northern Aus-
tralia, it is important to target initial empirical antimicro-
bials for severe community-acquired pneumonia against
B. pseudomallei. ANSTEY et al.  found that a fatal out-
come was strongly associated with inappropriate initial
antibiotic therapy and identified appropriately tailored the-
rapeutic regimens for the Northern Territory of Australia.
A useful antibiotic regimen for patients with severe-com-
munity-acquired pneumonia in Singapore would be a
combination of intravenous ceftazidime (high dose), clo-
xacillin and oral doxycycline. This combination of antimi-
crobials would cover the more usual pathogens in severe
community-acquired pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus,
atypical pneumonia (Mycoplasma pneumonia, Legionella
pneumophila and Chlamydia spp.) and Burkholderia pseu-
Table 1. – Aetiological agents and outcome
No. of patients
(acid-fast bacilli smear)
(nine from blood culture, one
from pleural fluid and sputum)
(four from blood, culture, one
from sputum and ETT culture)
(four from blood culture,
one from BAL culture)
(four from serology)
(three from blood culture,
one from BAL culture)
(two from serology)
(one from ETT culture, one
from sputum and BAL culture)
(one from blood culture)
ETT: endotracheal tube; BAL: bronchoalveolar lavage.
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