Investigation of human mitochondrial myopathies by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
ABSTRACT Abnormal mitochondria are an increasingly recognized cause of neuromuscular disease. We have used phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy to monitor noninvasively the metabolism of high-energy phosphates and the intracellular pH of human skeletal muscle in vivo in 12 patients with mitochondrial myopathy. At rest, an abnormality could be demonstrated in 11 of 12 patients. Ten patients had evidence of a reduced muscle energy state with at least one of the following abnormalities: low phosphorylation potential, low phosphocreatine concentration, high adenosine diphosphate concentration, or high inorganic phosphate concentration. Two patients had abnormal resting muscle intracellular pH. In some patients phosphocreatine concentration decreased to low values during exercise despite limited work output. This was not accompanied by particularly severe intracellular acidosis. Evidence of impaired rephosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate to adenosine triphosphate during recovery from exercise was found in approximately half the patients. Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy is useful in the noninvasive diagnosis of mitochondrial myopathies and in defining the pathophysiological basis of these disorders.
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ABSTRACT: Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is caused by a GAA repeat expansion in the FXN gene leading to reduced expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhuEPO) is suggested to increase frataxin levels, alter mitochondrial function and improve clinical scores in FRDA patients. Aim of the present pilot study was to investigate mitochondrial metabolism of skeletal muscle tissue in FRDA patients and examine effects of rhuEPO administration by phosphorus 31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS). Seven genetically confirmed FRDA patients underwent 31P MRS of the calf muscles using a rest-exercise-recovery protocol before and after receiving 3000 IU of rhuEPO for eight weeks. FRDA patients showed more rapid phosphocreatine (PCr) depletion and increased accumulation of inorganic phosphate (Pi) during incremental exercise as compared to controls. After maximal exhaustive exercise prolonged regeneration of PCR and slowed decline in Pi can be seen in FRDA. PCr regeneration as hallmark of mitochondrial ATP production revealed correlation to activity of complex II/III of the respiratory chain and to demographic values. PCr and Pi kinetics were not influenced by rhuEPO administration. Our results confirm mitochondrial dysfunction and exercise intolerance due to impaired oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle tissue of FRDA patients. MRS did not show improved mitochondrial bioenergetics after eight weeks of rhuEPO exposition in skeletal muscle tissue of FRDA patients. EU Clinical Trials Register2008-000040-13.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e69229. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The most important function of mitochondria is the production of energy in the form of ATP. The socio-economic impact of human diseases that affect skeletal muscle mitochondrial function is growing, and improving their clinical management critically depends on the development of non-invasive assays to assess mitochondrial function and monitor the effects of interventions. 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides two approaches that have been used to assess in vivo ATP synthesis in skeletal muscle: measuring Pi → ATP exchange flux using saturation transfer in resting muscle, and measuring phosphocreatine recovery kinetics after exercise. However, Pi → ATP exchange does not represent net mitochondrial ATP synthesis flux and has no simple relationship with mitochondrial function. Post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery kinetics, on the other hand, yield reliable measures of muscle mitochondrial capacity in vivo, whose ability to define the site of functional defects is enhanced by combination with other non-invasive techniques.The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 01/2014; · 4.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/cfs) is classified by the World Health Organization as a disorder of the central nervous system. ME/cfs is an neuro-immune disorder accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, increased levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), O&NS-mediated damage to fatty acids, DNA and proteins, autoimmune reactions directed against neoantigens and brain disorders. Mitochondrial dysfunctions have been found in ME/cfs, e.g. lowered ATP production, impaired oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial damage. This paper reviews the pathways that may explain mitochondrial dysfunctions in ME/cfs. Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and elastase, and increased O&NS may inhibit mitochondrial respiration, decrease the activities of the electron transport chain and mitochondrial membrane potential, increase mitochondrial membrane permeability, interfere with ATP production and cause mitochondrial shutdown. The activated O&NS pathways may additionally lead to damage of mitochondrial DNA and membranes thus decreasing membrane fluidity. Lowered levels of antioxidants, zinc and coenzyme Q10, and ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in ME/cfs may further aggravate the activated immuno-inflammatory and O&NS pathways. Therefore, it may be concluded that immuno-inflammatory and O&NS pathways may play a role in the mitochondrial dysfunctions and consequently the bioenergetic abnormalities seen in patients with ME/cfs. Defects in ATP production and the electron transport complex, in turn, are associated with an elevated production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in mitochondria creating adaptive and synergistic damage. It is argued that mitochondrial dysfunctions, e.g. lowered ATP production, may play a role in the onset of ME/cfs symptoms, e.g. fatigue and post exertional malaise, and may explain in part the central metabolic abnormalities observed in ME/cfs, e.g. glucose hypometabolism and cerebral hypoperfusion.Metabolic Brain Disease 03/2014; 29(1):19-36. · 2.33 Impact Factor