Ibuprofen disposition in obese individuals.
ABSTRACT Eleven obese subjects (weight 114 +/- 11 kg, mean +/- SE) and 11 age-matched subjects with normal body weight (61 +/- 3 kg) were given 600 mg of ibuprofen orally after an overnight fast. Peak ibuprofen concentration was significantly decreased in obese subjects (P less than 0.02), although the time from administration to peak concentration was not different. Ibuprofen volume of distribution was increased in obese subjects, and this increased distribution correlated positively with body weight (r = 0.82; P less than 0.001). Volume of distribution corrected for body weight was decreased in obese subjects, and this decrease correlated negatively with body weight. Ibuprofen clearance was also increased in obese subjects; the increase correlated positively with body weight (r = 0.81; P less than 0.001). Since the independent variables, volume of distribution and clearance, were increased in parallel in the obese subjects, the dependent variable, elimination half-life, was unchanged. Using mean values of distribution calculated from the 2 groups, ibuprofen distribution into body weight in excess of ideal body weight was found to be approximately 0.44 times as extensive as the distribution into ideal body weight. Furthermore, ibuprofen clearance increased in parallel with the volume of distribution and total body weight. Clinically, these data indicate that in obese patients, the ibuprofen dose may be increased without changing the dose interval, in order to achieve necessary plasma concentrations.
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ABSTRACT: The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) has found widespread utility in drug discovery, product development and drug product regulatory sciences. The classification scheme captures the two most significant factors influencing oral drug absorption; solubility and intestinal permeability and it has proven to be a very useful and a widely accepted starting point for drug product development and drug product regulation. The mechanistic base of the BCS approach has, no doubt, contributed to its wide spread acceptance and utility. Nevertheless, underneath the simplicity of BCS are many detailed complexities, both in vitro and in vivo which must be evaluated and investigated for any given drug and drug product. In this manuscript we propose a simple extension of the BCS classes to include sub-specification of acid (a), base (b) and neutral (c) for classes II and IV. Sub-classification for Classes I and III (high solubility drugs as currently defined) is generally not needed except perhaps in border line solubility cases. It is well known that the , pKa physical property of a drug (API) has a significant impact on the aqueous solubility dissolution of drug from the drug product both in vitro and in vivo for BCS Class II and IV acids and bases, and is the basis, we propose for a Sub-classification extension of the original BCS Classification. This BCS sub-classification is particularly important for in vivo predictive dissolution methodology development due to the complex and variable in vivo environment in the gastrointestinal tract, with its changing pH, buffer capacity, luminal volume, surfactant luminal conditions, permeability profile along the gastrointestinal tract and variable transit and fasted and fed states. We believe this sub-classification is a step toward developing a more science-based mechanistic in vivo predictive dissolution (IPD) methodology (). Such a dissolution methodology can be used by development scientists to assess the likelihood of a formulation and dosage form functioning as desired in humans, can be optimized along with parallel human pharmacokinetic studies to set a dissolution methodology for Quality by Design (QbD) and in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) and ultimately can be used as a basis for a dissolution standard that will ensure continued in vivo product performance.European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 01/2014; · 2.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of obesity in adults and children is rapidly increasing across the world. Several general (patho)physiological alterations associated with obesity have been described, but the specific impact of these alterations on drug metabolism and elimination and its consequences for drug dosing remains largely unknown. In order to broaden our knowledge of this area, we have reviewed and summarized clinical studies that reported clearance values of drugs in both obese and non-obese patients. Studies were classified according to their most important metabolic or elimination pathway. This resulted in a structured review of the impact of obesity on metabolic and elimination processes, including phase I metabolism, phase II metabolism, liver blood flow, glomerular filtration and tubular processes. This literature study shows that the influence of obesity on drug metabolism and elimination greatly differs per specific metabolic or elimination pathway. Clearance of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 substrates is lower in obese as compared with non-obese patients. In contrast, clearance of drugs primarily metabolized by uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), glomerular filtration and/or tubular-mediated mechanisms, xanthine oxidase, N-acetyltransferase or CYP2E1 appears higher in obese versus non-obese patients. Additionally, in obese patients, trends indicating higher clearance values were seen for drugs metabolized via CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6, while studies on high-extraction-ratio drugs showed somewhat inconclusive results. Very limited information is available in obese children, which prevents a direct comparison between data obtained in obese children and obese adults. Future clinical studies, especially in children, adolescents and morbidly obese individuals, are needed to extend our knowledge in this clinically important area of adult and paediatric clinical pharmacology.Clinical Pharmacokinetics 03/2012; 51(5):277-304. · 5.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The FDA Biopharmaceutical Classification System guidance allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I. Extensions of the in vivo biowaiver for a number of drugs in BCS class III and BCS class II have been proposed, in particular, BCS class II weak acids. However, a discrepancy between the in vivo BE results and in vitro dissolution results for BCS class II acids was recently observed. The objectives of this study were to determine the oral absorption of BCS class II weak acids via simulation software and to determine if the in vitro dissolution test with various dissolution media could be sufficient for in vitro bioequivalence studies of ibuprofen and ketoprofen as models of carboxylic acid drugs. The oral absorption of these BCS class II acids from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted by GastroPlus™. Ibuprofen did not satisfy the bioequivalence criteria at lower settings of intestinal pH of 6.0. Further the experimental dissolution of ibuprofen tablets in a low concentration phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 (the average buffer capacity 2.2 mmol l (-1) /pH) was dramatically reduced compared with the dissolution in SIF (the average buffer capacity 12.6 mmol l (-1) /pH). Thus these predictions for the oral absorption of BCS class II acids indicate that the absorption patterns depend largely on the intestinal pH and buffer strength and must be considered carefully for a bioequivalence test. Simulation software may be a very useful tool to aid the selection of dissolution media that may be useful in setting an in vitro bioequivalence dissolution standard. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition 07/2012; 33(7):366-77. · 2.09 Impact Factor