[Protein and amino acid metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract of young bulls. 3. Flow of NH3-free raw protein into the duodenum].
ABSTRACT The amount of NH3-free crude protein getting into the duodenum corrected by the endogenous crude protein quota was determined on the basis of 28 differently composed rations for growing bulls in the live weight range of 140-460 kg provided with duodenal re-entrant cannulae. The experimental results were generalized by means of regression analysis and can be summarized as follows: The amount of NH3-free crude protein getting into the duodenum can partially be calculated with the regression equation (Formula: see text) resp. NH3-free crude protein D = 155 app. dig. org. matter + 0.262 pure protein +/- 42. The remaining dispersion amounts to +/- 6% of the mean value. The coincidence between the values calculated with these equations and those measured experimentally is very good. There is an interaction between the pure protein of feed getting into the duodenum in % of pure protein intake (y) and the bacteria crude protein D/kg app. dig. org. matter (x) characterized by the equation y = 116.8-0.52 x +/- 12.9. The amount of NH3-free crude protein duod. is not influenced by the flow rate (kg digesta/kg intake of org. matter) and not by the "dilution rate' (g bacteria free org. matter duod./kg live weight 0.75/h) either at a DM intake adequate to the production level. Apart from the partial estimation of the NH3-free crude protein duod. a evaluation based on the crude protein and pure protein concentration in app. dig. org. matter of the ration is possible.
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ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Four ruminally and abomasally cannulated Hereford steers were fed corn processed by one of four methods- dry rolling (DR), steam flaking (SF), propionic acid treated ensiled high moisture whole shelled (AHM) or ensiled ground high moisture shelled corn (GHM). The rations contained 43.8, 36.5, 59.3 and 96.9% of nitrogen as soluble nitrogen with DR, SF, AHM and GHM. Nitrogen intakes were 85.2, 76.1, 85.2 and 82.4 g/day while the abomasal nitro- gen inflow was 77.1, 87.1, 85.2 and 105.3 g/day on the same treatments, respectively, indicating greatest recycling occurred with SF and AHM rations. Microbial nitrogen repre- sented a greater percent (PJournal of Animal Science 02/1978; 46(1):249-54. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: I. Calves were given a basal diet of straw and flaked maize (12 g nitrogen/kg dry matter (DM)) or diets with some flaked maize replaced by untreated (UT) casein or formaldehyde-treated (FT) casein to give 19, 29 or 34 g N/kg DM. 2. At all intakes rumen ammonia concentrations were lower and amounts of total-N, non-ammonia-N and amino acid-N entering the duodenum were high when FT-rather the UT-casein supplements were given. 3. Direct measurement of casein entering the duodenum indicated that giving FT rather than UT casein led to much greater amounts of dietary casein escaping degradation in the rumen (70--90% compared to 10--20%). Calculated values for fermentable N indicated that with this low degradability diets containing FT-casein would have provided inadequate N for maximum microbial synthesis in the rumen, and this probably accounted for the marked reduction in amounts of non-casein-N entering the duodenum when FT rather than UT casein was given. 4. Amino acid patterns in duodenal digesta samples after giving the basal diet or diets containing UT-casein were similar. Giving diets containing FT-casein led to changes in this pattern which could sometimes, although not always, be accounted for by estimated differences in proportions of dietary and microbial proteins. 5. At the highest level of N intake FT-casein-supplemented diets led to significantly higher concentrations of most essential amino acids and lower concentrations of most non-essential amino acids in plasma than did UT-casein-supplemented diets. Plasma urea concentrations increased with increasing N intake but were not significantly different for UT- and FT-casein-supplemented diets.British Journal Of Nutrition 10/1976; 36(2):199-209. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 1. Three sheep, each fitted with a ruminal cannula and duodenal re-entrant cannulas were given three isonitrogenous, isoenergetic diets in a Latin-Square design. Each diet contained (/kg) approximately 400 g N as white fish meal, soya-bean meal or urea and approximately 600 g dry matter (dm) was barley grain. The diets were fed continuously and supplied about 28 g N/d.2. Total duodenal digesta was collected manually for 72 h and the proportions of microbial N in that digesta were simultaneously estimated for all sheep using RNA, radioactive sulphur (35S), diaminopimelic acid (DAPA) and aminoethylphosphonic acid (AEPA) as markers.3. Three of the estimation methods showed that the variable source of dietary N had the greatest (RNA P < 0.05, 35S P < 0.005, DAPA P < 0.1) effect on the proportions of microbial N in duodenal digesta, though differences between sheep accounted for some variation.4. These methods also ranked the diets in the order: urea > soya-bean meal > fish meal with respect to the proportions of digesta N that were microbial in origin; the respective mean values for these diets with the different markers were: RNA 0.98, 0.70, 0.56; 35S 0.92, 0.64, 0.54; DAPA 0.80, 0.47, 0.42.5. AEPA was found to be present in substantial quantities not only in isolated rumen protozoa, but also in dietary and bacterial material; an observation that invalidated its further use as a protozoal marker.6. Calculations using values obtained from the 35S procedure showed that the proportions of dietary N degraded within the rumen were 0.38, 0.43 and 0.89 for the white fish meal, soya-bean meal and barley respectively.7. The marker methods are compared and their advantages and disadvantages (real and apparent) are discussed. It is concluded that where microbial N estimates of a more general and comparative nature are required, the use of RNA as a marker is probably adequate. Where information for more exacting purposes is required, the use of 35S appears to be more appropriate.British Journal Of Nutrition 02/1978; 39(1):165-79. · 3.30 Impact Factor