Vertically Extended Neutral Gas in the Massive Edge-on Spiral NGC 5746

The Astrophysical Journal (Impact Factor: 6.28). 01/2008; DOI: 10.1086/528952
Source: arXiv

ABSTRACT We present Very Large Array 21-cm observations of the massive edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 5746. This galaxy has recently been reported to have a luminous X-ray halo, which has been taken as evidence of residual hot gas as predicted in galaxy formation scenarios. Such models also predict that some of this gas should undergo thermal instabilities, leading to a population of warm clouds falling onto the disk. If so, then one might expect to find a vertically extended neutral layer. We detect a substantial high-latitude component, but conclude that almost all of its mass of 1.2-1.6 billion solar masses most likely resides in a warp. Four features far from the plane containing about 100 million solar masses are found at velocities distinct from this warp. These clouds may be associated with the expected infall, although an origin in a disk-halo flow cannot be ruled out, except for one feature which is counter-rotating. The warp itself may be a result of infall according to recent models. But clearly this galaxy lacks a massive, lagging neutral halo as found in NGC 891. The disk HI is concentrated into two rings of radii 1.5 and 3 arcminutes. Radial inflow is found in the disk, probably due to the bar in this galaxy. A nearby member of this galaxy group, NGC 5740, is also detected. It shows a prominent one-sided extension which may be the result of ram pressure stripping. Comment: 55 pages, 20 figures

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a pair of high-resolution smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations that explore the evolution and cooling behavior of hot gas around Milky-Way size galaxies. The simulations contain the same total baryonic mass and are identical other than their initial gas density distributions. The first is initialised with a low entropy hot gas halo that traces the cuspy profile of the dark matter, and the second is initialised with a high-entropy hot halo with a cored density profile as might be expected in models with pre-heating feedback. Galaxy formation proceeds in dramatically different fashion depending on the initial setup. While the low-entropy halo cools rapidly, primarily from the central region, the high-entropy halo is quasi-stable for ~4 Gyr and eventually cools via the fragmentation and infall of clouds from ~100 kpc distances. The low-entropy halo's X-ray surface brightness is ~100 times brighter than current limits and the resultant disc galaxy contains more than half of the system's baryons. The high-entropy halo has an X-ray brightness that is in line with observations, an extended distribution of pressure-confined clouds reminiscent of observed populations, and a final disc galaxy that has half the mass and ~50% more specific angular momentum than the disc formed in the low-entropy simulation. The final high-entropy system retains the majority of its baryons in a low-density hot halo. The hot halo harbours a trace population of cool, mostly ionised, pressure-confined clouds that contain ~10% of the halo's baryons after 10 Gyr of cooling. The covering fraction for HI and MgII absorption clouds in the high-entropy halo is ~0.4 and ~0.6, respectively, although most of the mass that fuels disc growth is ionised, and hence would be under counted in HI surveys.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2009; · 5.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies of the halo gas in the Milky Way and in nearby spiral galaxies show the presence of gas complexes that cannot be reconciled with an internal (galactic fountain) origin and are direct evidence of gas accretion. Estimating gas accretion rates from these features consistently gives values, which are one order of magnitude lower than what is needed to feed the star formation. I show that this problem can be overcome if most of the accretion is in fact "hidden" as it mixes with the galactic fountain material coming from the disk. This model not only provides an explanation for the missing gas accretion but also reproduces the peculiar kinematics of the halo gas in particular the vertical rotation gradient. In this view this gradient becomes indirect evidence for gas accretion.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 08/2008;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The existence of partially ionized, diffuse gas and dust clouds at kiloparsec scale distances above the central planes of edge-on, galaxy discs was an unexpected discovery about 20 yrs ago. Subsequent observations showed that this EDIG (extended or extraplanar diffuse interstellar gas) has rotation velocities approximately 10-20% lower than those in the central plane, and have been hard to account for. Here we present results of hydrodynamic models, with radiative cooling and heating from star formation. We find that in models with star formation generated stochastically across the disc an extraplanar gas layer is generated as long as the star formation is sufficiently strong. However, this gas rotates at nearly the same speed as the mid-plane gas. We then studied a range of models with imposed spiral or bar waves in the disc. EDIG layers were also generated in these models, but primarily over the wave regions, not over the entire disc. Because of this partial coverage, the EDIG clouds move radially, as well as vertically, with the result that observed kinematic anomalies are reproduced. The implication is that the kinematic anomalies are the result of three-dimensional motions when the cylindrical symmetry of the disc is broken. Thus, the kinematic anomalies are the result of bars or strong waves, and more face-on galaxies with such waves should have an asymmetric EDIG component. The models also indicate that the EDIG can contain a significant fraction of cool gas, and that some star formation can be triggered at considerable heights above the disc midplane. We expect all of these effects to be more prominent in young, forming discs, to play a role in rapidly smoothing disc asymmetries, and in working to self-regulate disc structure. Comment: 30 pages, 9 figs., accepted for MNRAS with additional referee corrections
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2008; · 5.23 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Oct 29, 2014