Article

Overinclusive thinking in mania and schizophrenia.

The British Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.34). 12/1974; 125:452-6. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.125.5.452
Source: PubMed
0 Followers
 · 
249 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Although the presence of wide-ranging neuropsychological deficits in individuals with major depression is well established. few studies have investigated the nature of cognitive impairment in patients with bipolar disorder. Aims To review research of the neuropsychology of bipolar disorder, with special attention to the relationship between mood and cognitive functioning. Method Literature review. Results Findings generally demonstrate mania-related impairments on conventional neuropsychological tests, with direct comparisons of patients with mania and patients with depression failing to find group differences. More recent work has sought to differentiate these disorders by employing tasks with affective components. This research has demonstrated biases for processing positive and negative stimuli in patients with mania and depression. respectively. Conclusions Future studies, employing tasks that require cognitive and emotional processing, should improve our understanding of the deficits observed in depression and mania. Neuroimaging studies of the neural regions that underlie cognitive processing of affective meaning suggest that the medial and orbitofrontal prefrontal cortex may be particularly involved.
    The British Journal of Psychiatry 06/2001; 178(41):120s-127. DOI:10.1192/bjp.178.41.s120 · 7.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A long-standing tradition in personality research in psychology, and nowadays increasingly in psychiatry, is that psychotic and psychotic-like thoughts are considered common experiences in the general population. Given their widespread occurrence, such experiences cannot merely reflect pathological functioning. Moreover, reflecting the multi-dimensionality of schizotypy, some dimensions might be informative for healthy functioning while others less so. Here, we explored these possibilities by reviewing research that links schizotypy to favorable functioning such as subjective wellbeing, cognitive functioning (major focus on creativity), and personality correlates. This research highlights the existence of healthy people with psychotic-like traits who mainly experience positive schizotypy (but also affective features mapping onto bipolar disorder). These individuals seem to benefit from a healthy way to organize their thoughts and experiences, that is, they employ an adaptive cognitive framework to explain and integrate their unusual experiences. We conclude that, instead of focusing only on the pathological, future studies should explore the behavioral, genetic, imaging, and psychopharmacological correlates that define the healthy expression of psychotic-like traits. Such studies would inform on protective or compensatory mechanisms of psychosis-risk and could usefully inform us on the evolutionary advantages of the psychosis dimension. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin 03/2015; 41 Suppl 2:S436-43. DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbu185 · 8.61 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of overinclusive thinking training (OTT) on creativity improvement. In Experiment 1, 40 undergraduates were randomly assigned to the OTT group or the control group. After the training, the participants were required to complete categorization tasks. The results show that the OTT enhanced participants’ ability to engage in overinclusive thinking. In Experiment 2, 42 undergraduates were randomly assigned to the OTT group or the control group. After the training, the participants were required to complete the Creative Thinking Test. The results show that the performance of the OTT group regarding fluency and originality was higher than that of the control group. In Experiment 3, 56 undergraduates were randomly assigned to three groups: the control group, the long-distance semantic OTT group, or the short-distance semantic OTT group. After the training, the participants were required to solve insight problems. The results show that the performance of the long-distance semantic OTT group in insight problem solving was superior to that of the short-distance semantic OTT and the control group. In Experiment 4, 50 undergraduates were randomly assigned to the OTT group or the control group. The Creative Thinking Test was performed 7 days after training. The results show that the training effect on originality remained; however, no training effect was observed on either fluency or flexibility.
    Thinking Skills and Creativity 11/2014; 15. DOI:10.1016/j.tsc.2014.11.001 · 1.46 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
3 Downloads
Available from