[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic retinopathy remains the most common complication of diabetes mellitus and is a leading cause of visual loss in industrialized nations. The clinicopathology of the diabetic retina has been extensively studied, although the precise pathogenesis and cellular and molecular defects that lead to retinal vascular, neural and glial cell dysfunction remain somewhat elusive. This lack of understanding has seriously limited the therapeutic options available for the ophthalmologist and there is a need to identify the definitive pathways that initiate retinal cell damage and drive progression to overt retinopathy. The present review begins by outlining the natural history of diabetic retinopathy, the clinical features and risk factors. Reviewing the histopathological data from clinical specimens and animal models, the recent paradigm that neuroretinal dysfunction may play an important role in the early development of the disease is discussed. The review then focuses on the molecular pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy with perspective provided on new advances that have furthered our understanding of the key mechanisms underlying early changes in the diabetic retina. Studies have also emerged in the past year suggesting that defective repair of injured retinal vessels by endothelial progenitor cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. We assess these findings and discuss how they could eventually lead to new therapeutic options for diabetic retinopathy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disturbances in the retinal vascular supply are involved in the pathophysiology of the most frequent diseases causing visual impairment and blindness in the Western World. These diseases are diagnosed by noting how morphological lesions in the retina vary in shape, size, location and dynamics, and subsequently concluding the presence of a specific disease entity. This diagnostic approach can be used to identify the site of a retinal vascular occlusion, to assess whether retinal diseases are primarily due to changes in the larger retinal vessels or the microcirculation, and to differentiate the relative involvement of the choroidal and the retinal vascular systems. However, a number of morphological manifestations of retinal vascular disease cannot presently be related to the underlying pathophysiology. The review concludes that there is a need for developing new methods for assessing vascular structure and function in the ciliary vascular system supplying the choroid and the optic nerve head. Presently, the study of these structures relies on imaging techniques with limited penetration and resolution into the tissue. Secondly, there is a need for studying oscillations in retinal vascular function occurring within days to weeks, and for studying regional manifestations of retinal vascular disease. This may constitute the basis for future research in retinal vascular pathophysiology and for the development of new treatment modalities to reduce blindness secondary to retinal vascular disease.
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 07/2013; · 9.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dynamic indocyanine green imaging uses a scanning laser ophthalmoscope and a fluorescent dye to produce movies of the dye-filling pattern in the retina and choroid of the eye. It is used for evaluating choroidal neovascularization. Movies are examined to identify the anatomy of the pathology for planning treatment and to evaluate progression or response to treatment. The popularity of this approach is affected by the complexity and difficulty in interpreting the movies. Software algorithms were developed to produce images from the movies that are easy to interpret. A mathematical model is formulated of the flow dynamics, and a fitting algorithm is designed that solves for the flow parameters. The images provide information about flow and perfusion, including regions of change between examinations. Imaged measures include the dye fill-time, temporal dispersion, and magnitude of the dye dilution temporal curves associated with image pixels. Cases show how the software can help to identify clinically relevant anatomy such as feeder vessels, drain vessels, capillary networks, and normal choroidal draining vessels. As a potential tool for research into the character of neovascular conditions and treatments, it reveals the flow dynamics and character of the lesion. Future varieties of this methodology may be used for evaluating the success of engineered tissue transplants, surgical flaps, reconstructive surgery, breast surgery, and many other surgical applications where flow, perfusion, and vascularity of tissue are important.
Journal of Biomedical Optics 11/2012; 17(11):116028. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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