Fluorescein angiography of the fundus in diabetic retinopathy.

British Medical Bulletin (Impact Factor: 3.95). 06/1970; 26(2):166-70.
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: We describe a novel approach to analyze fluorescein angiography to investigate fluorescein flow dynamics in the rat posterior retina as well as identify abnormal areas following laser photocoagulation. Methods: Experiments were undertaken in adult Long Evans rats. Using a rodent retinal camera, videos were acquired at 30 frames per second for 30 seconds following intravenous introduction of sodium fluorescein in a group of control animals (n = 14). Videos were image registered and analyzed using principle components analysis across all pixels in the field. This returns fluorescence intensity profiles from which, the half-rise (time to 50% brightness), half-fall (time for 50% decay) back to an offset (plateau level of fluorescence). We applied this analysis to video fluorescein angiography data collected 30 minutes following laser photocoagulation in a separate group of rats (n = 7). Results: Pixel-by-pixel analysis of video angiography clearly delineates differences in the temporal profiles of arteries, veins and capillaries in the posterior retina. We find no difference in half-rise, half-fall or offset amongst the four quadrants (inferior, nasal, superior, temporal). We also found little difference with eccentricity. By expressing the parameters at each pixel as a function of the number of standard deviation from the average of the entire field, we could clearly identify the spatial extent of the laser injury.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e111330. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disturbances in the retinal vascular supply are involved in the pathophysiology of the most frequent diseases causing visual impairment and blindness in the Western World. These diseases are diagnosed by noting how morphological lesions in the retina vary in shape, size, location and dynamics, and subsequently concluding the presence of a specific disease entity. This diagnostic approach can be used to identify the site of a retinal vascular occlusion, to assess whether retinal diseases are primarily due to changes in the larger retinal vessels or the microcirculation, and to differentiate the relative involvement of the choroidal and the retinal vascular systems. However, a number of morphological manifestations of retinal vascular disease cannot presently be related to the underlying pathophysiology. The review concludes that there is a need for developing new methods for assessing vascular structure and function in the ciliary vascular system supplying the choroid and the optic nerve head. Presently, the study of these structures relies on imaging techniques with limited penetration and resolution into the tissue. Secondly, there is a need for studying oscillations in retinal vascular function occurring within days to weeks, and for studying regional manifestations of retinal vascular disease. This may constitute the basis for future research in retinal vascular pathophysiology and for the development of new treatment modalities to reduce blindness secondary to retinal vascular disease.
    Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 07/2013; · 9.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic retinopathy remains the most common complication of diabetes mellitus and is a leading cause of visual loss in industrialized nations. The clinicopathology of the diabetic retina has been extensively studied, although the precise pathogenesis and cellular and molecular defects that lead to retinal vascular, neural and glial cell dysfunction remain somewhat elusive. This lack of understanding has seriously limited the therapeutic options available for the ophthalmologist and there is a need to identify the definitive pathways that initiate retinal cell damage and drive progression to overt retinopathy. The present review begins by outlining the natural history of diabetic retinopathy, the clinical features and risk factors. Reviewing the histopathological data from clinical specimens and animal models, the recent paradigm that neuroretinal dysfunction may play an important role in the early development of the disease is discussed. The review then focuses on the molecular pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy with perspective provided on new advances that have furthered our understanding of the key mechanisms underlying early changes in the diabetic retina. Studies have also emerged in the past year suggesting that defective repair of injured retinal vessels by endothelial progenitor cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. We assess these findings and discuss how they could eventually lead to new therapeutic options for diabetic retinopathy.
    Clinical Science 01/2013; 125(1):1-17. · 5.63 Impact Factor