[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An evaluation of the microbiota present in cutaneous ulcers from 31 patients with a clinical and parasitological diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) was carried out by the standard filter paper disc technique, including antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacterial isolates. Microbial examination indicated that 21 patients (67.7%) were contaminated with one to four bacteria and some of them also with yeast. A total of 142 micro-organisms were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently recovered bacterium (95.2% of positive patients) and was found to produce type B (70% of the staphylococcal isolates) and type C (50%) enterotoxins as well as toxic shock syndrome toxin (60%). Proteus mirabilis (33.3% of the positive patients), Streptococcus pyogenes (19.0 %), H(2)S-negative Proteus species (19.0%), Klebsiella oxytoca (14.3%), Enterobacter species (9.5%), Peptostreptococcus species (9.5%), Pseudomonas species (4.8%), Prevotella bivia (4.8%), Escherichia coli (4.8%), Streptococcus agalactiae (4.8%), Bacteroides fragilis (4.8%), Candida albicans (9.5%) and Candida tropicalis (4.8%) were also isolated. Surprisingly, Staph. aureus isolates were susceptible to almost all tested drugs, although some of them were resistant to penicillin (69%) and ampicillin + sulbactam (68%). Concerning obligate anaerobes, all the Gram-negative isolates (25% of the total) were resistant to metronidazole. The results of the present study show that microbial secondary contaminants, particularly Staph. aureus, should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of ATL lesions.
Journal of Medical Microbiology 12/2005; 54(Pt 11):1071-6. DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.46070-0 · 2.27 Impact Factor
"The quantity of enterotoxin present in the foods involved in food-poisoning outbreaks may vary considerably from less than 1 ng g −1 to more than 50 ng g −1 (Bergdoll 1991). Different immunological methods have been proposed for detecting staphylococcal enterotoxins, including immunodiffusion assays (Casman et al. 1979), radioimmunoassays (Miller et al. 1978; Janin et al. 1985) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A concentration protocol based on trichloroacetic acid precipitation was evaluated and compared with the reference method using dialysis concentration. Different quantities of purified staphylococcal enterotoxins were added to pasteurized Camembert-type cheeses. Detection of enterotoxins in these cheeses was performed using an automated detection system. Raw goat milk Camembert-type cheeses involved in a staphylococcal food poisoning were also tested. Both enterotoxin extraction methods allowed detection of the lowest enterotoxin concentration level used in this study (0.5 ng g-1). Compared with the dialysis concentration method, TCA precipitation of staphylococcal enterotoxins was 'user-friendly' and less time-consuming. These results suggest that TCA precipitation is a rapid (1 h), simple and reliable method of extracting enterotoxin from food which gives excellent recovery from dairy products.
"Rapid radioimmunoassays have been described for detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin types A, B, and C (Johnson et al., 1971; Collins et al, 1972; Collins et al, 1973; Dickie et al, 1973). However , our previous efforts to measure staphylococcal enterotoxin in stomach aspirate by radioimmunoassay (RIA) were unsuccessful since positive results were not corroborated by the microslide immunodiffusion test (Casman et al, 1969). These attempts were expanded in the present study. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gastric juice of a patient showing symptoms of staphylococcal food poisoning was examined by a radioimmunoassay for the presence of enterotoxins. Assays gave markedly higher results at 35 degrees than at 5 degrees. The source for this discrepancy was attributed to interference due to trypsin activity on the basis of (1) the demonstration of hydrolysis of p-toluenesulfonyl-L-arginine methyl ester by the specimen, (2) inhibition of this activity by trypsin inhibitor from lima bean, and (3) lowered values produced for enterotoxins in gastric juice when the inhibitor was included in the assay system.
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