Young Core-Collapse Supernova Remnants and Their Supernovae

The Astrophysical Journal (Impact Factor: 5.99). 09/2004; 619(2). DOI: 10.1086/426584
Source: arXiv


Massive star supernovae can be divided into four categories depending on the amount of mass loss from the progenitor star and the star's radius: red supergiant stars with most of the H envelope intact (SN IIP), stars with some H but most lost (IIL, IIb), stars with all H lost (Ib, Ic), and blue supergiant stars with a massive H envelope (SN 1987A-like). Various aspects of the immediate aftermath of the supernova are expected to develop in different ways depending on the supernova category: mixing in the supernova, fallback on the central compact object, expansion of any pulsar wind nebula, interaction with circumstellar matter, and photoionization by shock breakout radiation. The observed properties of young supernova remnants allow many of them to be placed in one of the supernova categories; all the categories are represented except for the SN 1987A-like type. Of the remnants with central pulsars, the pulsar properties do not appear to be related to the supernova category. There is no evidence that the supernova categories form a mass sequence, as would be expected in a single star scenario for the evolution. Models for young pulsar wind nebulae expanding into supernova ejecta indicate initial pulsar periods of 10-100 ms and approximate equipartition between particle and magnetic energies. Ages are obtained for pulsar nebulae, including an age of 2400 pm 500 yr for 3C58, which is not consistent with an origin in SN 1181. There is no evidence that mass fallback plays a role in neutron star properties. Comment: 43 pages, ApJ, revised, discussion of 3C58 changed, in press for Feb. 1, 2005

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    • "It is widely assumed that 3C 58 is located at a distance of 3.2 kpc [3], but recent H I measurements suggest a distance of 2 kpc [4]. The age of the system is estimated to be ∼ 2.5 kyr [5] from the PWN evolution and energetics, however this is a matter of debate. The pulsar has one of the highest spin-down powers known ( ˙ E = 2.7×10 37 erg s −1 ). "
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    ABSTRACT: The Pulsar Wind Nebula (PWN) 3C 58 is energized by one of the highest spin-down power pulsars known (5% of Crab pulsar) and it has been compared to the Crab Nebula due to their morphological similarities. This object was detected by Fermi-LAT with a spectrum extending beyond 100 GeV. We analyzed 81 hours of 3C 58 data taken with the MAGIC telescopes and we detected VHE gamma-ray emission for the first time at TeV energies with a significance of 5.7 sigma and an integral flux of 0.65% C.U. above 1 TeV. The differential energy spectrum between 400 GeV and 10 TeV is well described by a power-law function $d\Phi/dE=f_{o}(E/1TeV)^{-\Gamma}$ with $f_{o}=(2.0\pm0.4stat\pm0.6sys) 10^{-13}cm^{-2}s^{-1}TeV^{-1}$ and $\Gamma=2.4\pm0.2sta\pm0.2sys$. This leads 3C 58 to be the least luminous PWN ever detected at VHE and the one with the lowest flux at VHE to date. According to time-dependent models in which electrons up-scatter photon fields, the best representation favors a distance to the PWN of 2 kpc and FIR comparable to CMB photon fields. If we consider an unexpectedly high FIR density, the data can also be reproduced by models assuming a 3.2 kpc distance. A low magnetic field, far from equipartition, is required to explain the VHE data. Hadronic contribution from the hosting supernova remnant (SNR) requires unrealistic energy budget given the density of the medium, disfavoring cosmic ray acceleration in the SNR as origin of the VHE gamma-ray emission.
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