Ballistic limits of tissue and clothing.

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 4.38). 11/1968; 152(1):163-7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1968.tb11973.x
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of prehistoric weaponry remains an open question in North American archaeology. The traditional model argues for an early use of the throwing spear followed by the spearthrower and bow and arrow. A major difficulty in testing this model is, identifying the functional variables that characterize different weaponry. The evolution of prehistoric weaponry is reexamined here from an evolutionary perspective where projectile points are considered part of the complete weapon system and variation within that system is identified. The engineering of four weapon systems, the thrusting spear, throwing spear, spearthrower, and bow, are examined to identify those point variables that enhance the success of the system. These variables are then measured on a 9000-year sequence of projectile points from northwestern Wyoming to examine time/space patterns. The patterns reveal that the spearthrower was in use prior to 7500 years ago.
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of earth cover on the far-field fragment density expected from the accidental detonation of stored munitions was estimated by preparing three models of fragment-cover interaction. Comparisons of the theoretical calculations with limited experimental data show that the model wherein the crown of the earth cover does not retard any fragments gives the best agreement. Models for fragment-fragment interaction which effectively account for stack configuration lead to a simplified model for the effective number of munitions contributing to the far-field fragment density. An approximation technique for the rapid calculation of the far-field fragment density was prepared to assist in the ready evaluation of any model. Tentative quantity-distance relationships for four munitions were prepared. Parametric studies of the effect of altered mass distributions and fragment shape were conducted to assess possible differences between accidental detonation source parameters and arena data source parameters.
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    ABSTRACT: A quantitative model for the prediction of the lethality of unprotected persons due to debris and fragments is presented, The model provides the basis for the quantitative assessment of hazards caused by debris and fragments from various sources such as crater ejecta, building debris and fragments from bombs and shells. In a first step, the effects of a single piece of debris onto exposed persons are investigated. The lethalities of different body regions are evaluated in terms of the debris characteristics. In a second step, the lethality by the debris shower is obtained by superposition. A sample application shows how the model can be used to predict the lethality caused by crater ejecta from surface explosions on soil.
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