Conditioned reflex salivary secretion in man

Department of Physiology (Oral Biology), The Medical School, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TH UK
Archives of Oral Biology (Impact Factor: 1.74). 09/1970; 15(8):761-7. DOI: 10.1016/0003-9969(70)90039-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Human subjects have been conditioned to secrete saliva in response to sounding a buzzer and switching on a light. Orange juice injected onto the dorsum of the tongue was used as the unconditioned stimulus during the conditioning sequences. Negative results obtained in the early experiments of the present series, and by other workers, have been attributed to failure to obtain a discrete secretory response with each conditioning stimulus. Pre-formed conditioned reflexes were also demonstrated in response to the sight or suggestion of food although these responses were small and not consistent.RésuméDes sujets ont été conditionnés pour sécréter de la salive en allumant une lumière et en entendant une sonnerie. Du jus d'orange, placé sur le dos de la langue, sert de stimulus inconditionné pendant les phases du conditionnement. Les résultats négatifs, observés au cours de recherches antérieures par les auteurs et d'autres chercheurs, ont été mis en rapport avec l'incapacité d'obtenir une réponse sécrétoire discrète avec chaque stimulus conditionné. Des réflexes conditionnés préformés sont aussi mis en évidence à la vue ou par l'évocation de nourriture bien que ces réponses soient faibles et non constantes.ZusammenfassungVersuchspersonen wurden dazu angeleitet, Speichel als Reaktion auf des Geräusch eines Summers und das Einschalten von Licht zu sezernieren. Auf den Zungenrücken gespritzter Orangensaft wurde als nichtbedingter Reiz während der konditionierenden Übungen benützt. Negative Ergebnisse bei den ersten Versuchen dieser Reihe und von anderen Autoren waren darauf zurückzuführen, daβ es nicht gelang, eine diskrete sekretorische Reaktion bei jedem bedingten Reiz zu erhalten. Vorgeformte bedingte Reflexe wurden auch als Reaktion auf das Sehen oder das Sich-vorstellen von Nahrung nachgewiesen, obwohl diese Reaktionen gering und nicht einheitlich waren.

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    • "In fact, in some recent experiments subjects exposed to food with no smell component showed no measurable stimulated salivary secretion. Although some reports have shown a conditioned-like salivary reflex (Holland & Matthews 1970), the flows were very small and transient. In dogs and other species, a conditioned salivary reflex can be easily demonstrated. "
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    ABSTRACT: Saliva has one of the most difficult roles to perform in the body. It must facilitate the taste and detection of foods nutritious to the body but also defend the mucosa from infection by the ever-present microbiota present in the mouth. It achieves these roles by having a complex composition and versatile physical properties. The protein and ion components make a solution that is 99% water into a viscoelastic solution capable of many roles, such as acting as a lubricant and an antimicrobial, preventing the dissolution of teeth, aiding digestion, and facilitating taste. This review describes the neural regulation of salivary secretion in terms of fluid, protein, and ion secretion. It then describes some of the components and physical properties of saliva and attempts to relate them to the functions that saliva must perform.
    Review of Food Science and Technology 02/2013; 4(1):267-76. DOI:10.1146/annurev-food-030212-182700 · 6.29 Impact Factor
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    • "Indeed, many of basic principles of classical conditioning have been established by studying this important form of learning. However, as far as we know, conditioning of salivation has been reported only in dogs and humans [2], [3]. In spite of the enormous effort by Pavlov and his successors [1], [4]–[6], its underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive because of the complexity of the mammalian brain. "
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    ABSTRACT: Secretion of saliva to aid swallowing and digestion is an important physiological function found in many vertebrates and invertebrates. Pavlov reported classical conditioning of salivation in dogs a century ago. Conditioning of salivation, however, has been so far reported only in dogs and humans, and its underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive because of the complexity of the mammalian brain. We previously reported that, in cockroaches Periplaneta americana, salivary neurons that control salivation exhibited increased responses to an odor after conditioning trials in which the odor was paired with sucrose solution. However, no direct evidence of conditioning of salivation was obtained. In this study, we investigated the effects of conditioning trials on the level of salivation. Untrained cockroaches exhibited salivary responses to sucrose solution applied to the mouth but not to peppermint or vanilla odor applied to an antenna. After differential conditioning trials in which an odor was paired with sucrose solution and another odor was presented without pairing with sucrose solution, sucrose-associated odor induced an increase in the level of salivation, but the odor presented alone did not. The conditioning effect lasted for one day after conditioning trials. This study demonstrates, for the first time, classical conditioning of salivation in species other than dogs and humans, thereby providing the first evidence of sophisticated neural control of autonomic function in insects. The results provide a useful model system for studying cellular basis of conditioning of salivation in the simpler nervous system of insects.
    PLoS ONE 02/2007; 2(6):e529. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0000529 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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