Article

Conditioned reflex salivary secretion in man.

Department of Physiology (Oral Biology), The Medical School, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TH UK
Archives of Oral Biology (Impact Factor: 1.55). 09/1970; 15(8):761-7. DOI: 10.1016/0003-9969(70)90039-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Human subjects have been conditioned to secrete saliva in response to sounding a buzzer and switching on a light. Orange juice injected onto the dorsum of the tongue was used as the unconditioned stimulus during the conditioning sequences. Negative results obtained in the early experiments of the present series, and by other workers, have been attributed to failure to obtain a discrete secretory response with each conditioning stimulus. Pre-formed conditioned reflexes were also demonstrated in response to the sight or suggestion of food although these responses were small and not consistent.RésuméDes sujets ont été conditionnés pour sécréter de la salive en allumant une lumière et en entendant une sonnerie. Du jus d'orange, placé sur le dos de la langue, sert de stimulus inconditionné pendant les phases du conditionnement. Les résultats négatifs, observés au cours de recherches antérieures par les auteurs et d'autres chercheurs, ont été mis en rapport avec l'incapacité d'obtenir une réponse sécrétoire discrète avec chaque stimulus conditionné. Des réflexes conditionnés préformés sont aussi mis en évidence à la vue ou par l'évocation de nourriture bien que ces réponses soient faibles et non constantes.ZusammenfassungVersuchspersonen wurden dazu angeleitet, Speichel als Reaktion auf des Geräusch eines Summers und das Einschalten von Licht zu sezernieren. Auf den Zungenrücken gespritzter Orangensaft wurde als nichtbedingter Reiz während der konditionierenden Übungen benützt. Negative Ergebnisse bei den ersten Versuchen dieser Reihe und von anderen Autoren waren darauf zurückzuführen, daβ es nicht gelang, eine diskrete sekretorische Reaktion bei jedem bedingten Reiz zu erhalten. Vorgeformte bedingte Reflexe wurden auch als Reaktion auf das Sehen oder das Sich-vorstellen von Nahrung nachgewiesen, obwohl diese Reaktionen gering und nicht einheitlich waren.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
208 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reports on experience-dependent changes in invertebrate autonomic function are few. In the crab Chasmagnathus, repeated presentations of a visual danger stimulus (VDS) elicit long-term cardiac adjustments. Although these changes can be explained in terms of an associative process, they do not necessarily indicate an anticipatory conditioned response. In the present work, we investigated anticipation of the cardio-inhibitory response (CIR) after classical conditioning. We found that an initially seemingly neutral stimulus, which could trigger only a brief CIR as part of an arousal/orienting response, following pairing with the unconditioned stimulus, 24 h after a second exposure, triggered a significantly stronger CIR response compared to controls. We propose that, as a result of training, the conditioned stimulus acquires a different biological meaning, allowing the crab to anticipate the aversive stimulus.
    Physiology & Behavior 05/2010; 101(1):168-75. · 3.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Saliva has one of the most difficult roles to perform in the body. It must facilitate the taste and detection of foods nutritious to the body but also defend the mucosa from infection by the ever-present microbiota present in the mouth. It achieves these roles by having a complex composition and versatile physical properties. The protein and ion components make a solution that is 99% water into a viscoelastic solution capable of many roles, such as acting as a lubricant and an antimicrobial, preventing the dissolution of teeth, aiding digestion, and facilitating taste. This review describes the neural regulation of salivary secretion in terms of fluid, protein, and ion secretion. It then describes some of the components and physical properties of saliva and attempts to relate them to the functions that saliva must perform.
    Review of Food Science and Technology 01/2013; 4:267-76. · 4.68 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In a series of experiments, with over 100 subjects ranging in age from 14 to 43, issues in the control of salivation were examined. Using the sublingual cotton swab technique it was shown that salivation can be controlled by practitioners and non-practitioners of transcendental meditation. Sex differences were unimportant; the use of specific imagery relating to food and anxiety aided control, and there was a highly significant relationship between the degree of self-reported imagery vividness and the ability to increase and decrease salivation. Results were discussed in terms of the Pavlovian notion of signalling systems, and the suggestion was made that self-generated imagery could be important for the control, and in the conditioning, of other autonomic effectors.
    Psychophysiology 06/1978; 15(3):196-203. · 3.26 Impact Factor