A New Robust Low-Scatter X-ray Mass Indicator for Clusters of Galaxies

The Astrophysical Journal (Impact Factor: 6.73). 03/2006; DOI: 10.1086/506319
Source: arXiv

ABSTRACT We present comparison of X-ray proxies for the total cluster mass, including the spectral temperature (Tx), gas mass measured within r500 (Mg), and the new proxy, Yx, which is a simple product of Tx and Mg and is related to the total thermal energy of the ICM. We use mock Chandra images constructed for a sample of clusters simulated with the eulerian N-body+gasdynamics adaptive mesh refinement ART code in the concordance LCDM cosmology. The simulations achieve high spatial and mass resolution and include radiative cooling, star formation, and other processes accompanying galaxy formation. Our analysis shows that simulated clusters exhibit a high degree of regularity and tight correlations between the considered observables and total mass. The normalizations of the M-Tx, Mg-Tx, and M-Yx relations agree to better than 10-15% with the current observational measurements of these relations. Our results show that Yx is the best mass proxy with a remarkably low scatter of only ~5-7% in M500 for a fixed Yx, at both low and high redshifts and regardless of whether clusters are relaxed or not. In addition, we show that redshift evolution of the Yx-M500 relation is close to the self-similar prediction, which makes Yx a very attractive mass indicator for measurements of the cluster mass function from X-ray selected samples. Comment: submitted to ApJ; 9 pages, 6 figures, uses emulateapj

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    ABSTRACT: Weak gravitational lensing has been used extensively in the past decade to constrain the masses of galaxy clusters, and is the most promising observational technique for providing the mass calibration necessary for precision cosmology with clusters. There are several challenges in estimating cluster masses, particularly (a) the sensitivity to astrophysical effects and observational systematics that modify the signal relative to the theoretical expectations, and (b) biases that can arise due to assumptions in the mass estimation method, such as the assumed radial profile of the cluster. All of these challenges are more problematic in the inner regions of the cluster, suggesting that their influence would ideally be suppressed for the purpose of mass estimation. However, at any given radius the differential surface density measured by lensing is sensitive to all mass within that radius, and the corrupted signal from the inner parts is spread out to all scales. We develop a new statistic ϒ(R; R0) that is ideal for estimation of cluster masses because it completely eliminates mass contributions below a chosen scale (which we suggest should be about 20 per cent of the virial radius), and thus reduces sensitivity to systematic and astrophysical effects. We use simulated and analytical profiles including shape noise to quantify systematic biases on the estimated masses for several standard methods of mass estimation, finding that these can lead to significant mass biases that range from 10 to over 50 per cent. The mass uncertainties when using the new statistic ϒ(R; R0) are reduced by up to a factor of 10 relative to the standard methods, while only moderately increasing the statistical errors. This new method of mass estimation will enable a higher level of precision in future science work with weak lensing mass estimates for galaxy clusters.
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    ABSTRACT: We present deep XMM-Newton observations and ESO WFI optical imaging of two X-ray-selected fossil group candidates, RXC J0216.7-4749 and RXC J2315.7-0222. Using the X-ray data, we derive total mass profiles under the hydrostatic equilibrium assumption. The central regions of RXC J0216.7-4749 are found to be dominated by an X-ray bright AGN, and although we derive a mass profile, uncertainties are large and the constraints are significantly weakened due to the presence of the central source. The total mass profile of RXC J2315.7-0222 is of high quality, being measured in fifteen bins from [0.075-0.75] R500 and containing three data points interior to 30 kpc, allowing comprehensive investigation of its properties. We investigate several mass models based on the standard NFW profile or on the Sérsic-like model recently suggested by high-resolution N-body simulations. We find that the addition of a stellar component due to the presence of the central galaxy is necessary for a good analytical model fit. In all mass profile models fitted, the mass concentration is not especially high compared to non-fossil systems. In addition, the modification of the dark matter halo by adiabatic contraction slightly improves the fit. However, our result depends critically on the choice of IMF used to convert galaxy luminosity to mass, which leads to a degeneracy between the central slope of the dark matter profile and the normalisation of the stellar component. While we argue on the basis of the range of M_*/LR ratios that lower M_*/LR ratios are preferred on physical grounds and that adiabatic contraction has thus operated in this system, better theoretical and observational convergence on this problem is needed to make further progess.
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    ABSTRACT: [Abridged] Simulations and observations of the microwave sky are of great importance for understanding the Universe that we reside in. Specifically, knowledge of the CMB and its foregrounds - including the SZ effect from clusters of galaxies and radio point sources - tell us about the Universe on its very largest scales, and also what the Universe is made of. We describe the creation of software to carry out large numbers of virtual sky simulations. The simulations include the CMB, SZ effect and point sources, and are designed to examine the effects of point sources and the SZ effect on present and recent observations of the CMB. Utilizing sets of 1,000 simulations, we find that the power spectrum resulting from the SZ effect is expected to have a larger standard deviation by a factor of 3 than would be expected from purely Gaussian realizations, and is significantly skewed towards increased values for the power spectrum. The effects of the clustering of galaxy clusters, residual point sources and uncertainties in the gas physics are also investigated, as are the implications for the excess power measured in the CMB power spectrum by the CBI and BIMA. We carry out end-to-end simulations for OCRA-p observations of point sources. The introduction of simulated 1/ f noise significantly reduces the predicted ability of the instruments to observe weak sources by measuring the sources for long periods of time. The OCRA-p receiver has been used to observe point sources in the VSA fields so that they can be subtracted from observations of the CMB power spectrum. We find that these point sources are split between steep and flat spectrum sources. We have also observed 550 CRATES flat spectrum radio sources, which will be useful for comparison to Planck satellite observations. Finally, the assembly and commissioning of the OCRA-F receiver is outlined. [Abridged] Comment: 289 pages. This thesis was submitted by Michael Peel to The University of Manchester for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences on the 18th December 2009

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