Article

Preservation of emulsions against microbial attack.

Advances in pharmaceutical sciences 02/1964; 1:195-268.
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of changes in formulation pH and storage temperature on the preservative activities of some aerosol propellants--butane, carbon dioxide, dimethylether and their combinations were investigated. A preservative challenge test method was used to determine the survival rates of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger at formulation pH levels 5.80, 7.28 and 8.10 and storage temperatures of 20 degrees, 30 degrees and 40 degrees C. A significant decrease in the pH of formulations was observed with no corresponding changes in the antimicrobial effectiveness when carbon dioxide was incorporated. Alterations in the antimicrobial profiles of these propellants due to changes in formulation pH were dependent on the propellant and the species of the micro-organism, especially when single propellants were used. Results also showed that the propellants exert antimicrobial activities against the various organisms at the three storage temperatures but there were significantly greater inhibitory activities at 40 degrees C. With a combination of 10% butane/dimethylether (1:2) and 10 bar carbon dioxide there were no differences in the degree of microbial inhibition at the various formulation pH levels and storage temperatures. In most cases, the organisms were completely inactivated within 24 h. These findings showed that the combination of butane/dimethylether with carbon dioxide could be used to protect against microbial contamination and spoliage of formulations of different pH levels as well as those meant for storage at different temperatures.
    The Journal of applied bacteriology 03/1993; 74(2):200-9.
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    01/1968;
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    ABSTRACT: Cells of a strain of Pseudomonas cepacia were isolated from an oil-in-water emulsion containing methyl and propyl p-hydroxybenzoates (methylparaben and propylparaben) as preservative additives. This strain demonstrated the ability to destroy these additives, to utilize the propyl ester as sole carbon source, and to hydrolyze the methyl ester. When the isolate was grown on Eugon agar, exposure to the methyl ester killed 99.9% of the inoculum, but the surviving cells grew logarithmically. On the other hand, cells grown on media containing propylparaben were less susceptible when subsequently exposed to emulsions containing methylparaben. These observations demonstrate one mechanism by which microorganisms develop resistance to antimicrobial preservatives.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 06/1976; 31(5):718-22. · 3.68 Impact Factor