Canine anal glands and chemical signals (pheromones).

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (Impact Factor: 1.67). 01/1970; 155(12):1995-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The pheromones play an important role in animal behavior and reproductive processes. Pheromones in the urine, feces, or from cutaneous glands can be perceived through the olfactory system to elicit both behavioral and endocrine responses in various species. These can exert profound effects on reproductive activity via the hypothalamic system that generates pulses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. The role of pheromones in bovine reproduction is not as clearly defined as that in other species such as sheep, goats and swine. The knowledge acquired on the effectiveness of biostimulation; the factor which conditions it and the biological mechanism which produces it in livestock species, allows its use as a breeding management tool. The biostimulation technique through pheromones, offers a practical way to improve reproductive efficiency of the domestic animals by enhancing early onset of puberty and reducing postpartum anestrus period. However, the exact nature of the cues and the role of biostimulation in livestock species especially swine, sheep, goats and cattle require more attention.
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    ABSTRACT: In all vertebrate species examined, anal glands have been observed. These glands can be found anywhere along the anal canal and are generally a combination of apocrine and sebaceous adenomeres. They are used for signal expression in both terrestrial and aquatic settings. The goal of this study was to determine the morphology of the anal glands in the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, and suggest functional hypotheses through comparison to other species. Samples were collected from manatees of varying ages, during all seasons, and from both sexes (six females and five males). The glands were examined grossly and microscopically. They are present in fetal, juvenile, and adult male and female manatees and are found in clusters on each side of the anal canal within the sphincter muscles. Unlike in other species, the glands are solely apocrine without a sebaceous component. Branched tubules empty into collecting ducts and enter the anal canal at the anorectal junction. The secretion is mucus, protein, and lipid-rich. The large size and productive nature of the glands suggest that, like anal glands in other species, these may be used for signal transmission. This is the first detailed description of anal glands in a fully aquatic mammal.
    Marine Mammal Science 04/2013; 29(2). DOI:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2012.00564.x · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With 3 figures SummaryThis study aimed to investigate the enzyme histochemical expression of NADPH‐d in mast cells in the wall of the paranal sinus in male and female dogs. NADPH‐d‐positive cells with weak, medium and strong enzyme histochemical expression were observed in the stroma of the sinus near the blood vessels of the microcirculatory bed and around the apocrine and sebaceous glands. In the same areas, mast cells with similar dimensions and morphology were demonstrated by metachromasia on paraffin and cryostat cross‐sections and stained with 0.1% toluidine blue in McIlvane’s buffer (pH 3). These findings suggest that the mast cells that are located in the stroma near the blood vessels, the lining epithelium and the glands correspond with the cells with marked NADPH‐d activity. The possibility of mast cells having nitric oxide activity could be used in the regulation of mast cells function when treating paranal sinus tumours and inflammations.
    Anantomia Histologia Embryologia 09/2011; 41(2). · 0.74 Impact Factor