Canine anal glands and chemical signals (pheromones)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (Impact Factor: 1.56). 01/1970; 155(12):1995-6.
Article: Scent marking in Mammals[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper reviews experimental and field studies on scent marking behaviour. The occurrence and effects of scent marking are considered in particular, and a number of areas for further research are made apparent. Marking behaviour in mammals is often stated to be ‘territorial’ or, more specifically, to play a role in territorial defence. In fact there is a shortage of evidence to support this view; many of the relevant observations are anecdotal or interpreted with preconceived notions of function in mind. While marking is clearly associated with aggressive behaviour in many species and may therefore be related in some way to territorial behaviour, its role in aggression is not understood. Moreover, there is evidence to support a number of other theories of function some of which are unrelated to territory. It seems that, as with any other mode of communication, scent marking has become adapted for use in a variety of contexts. It probably has more than one function in any one species and different functions in different species.Animal Behaviour 08/1973; 21(3-21):521-535. DOI:10.1016/S0003-3472(73)80012-0 · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phenylacetic, 3-phenylpropionic, -hydroxyphenylacetic and 3 (-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acids together with the series of C2 to C6 saturated fatty acids previously reported in the anal sac secretion of the red fox () are identified as constituents of the anal sac secretion of the lion (Panthera leo). All these compounds are also observed in the anal sac secretion of the red fox using gas chromatography. The aerobic microflora of red fox and domestic dog () anal sac secretion samples invariably consisted predominantly of and . The hypothesis that the secretion volatiles so far identified may be microbiologically produced is examined.Life Sciences 02/1974; 14(2):387-400. DOI:10.1016/0024-3205(74)90069-1 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Attraction of male and female Beagles to conspecific urine, vaginal and anal sac secretion odors was examined in four experiments. Males spent more relative time investigating female urine odors than odors of vaginal or anal sac secretions. Sexually experienced males, but not sexually inexperienced ones, spent more time investigating estrous than diestrous female urine and vaginal odors. Anal sac secretions from estrous bitches were not more attractive to males than those from diestrous bitches. Estrous females spent no more time than diestrous ones in the investigation of male anal sac secretion and urine odors. Male urine and anal sac secretions elicited little investigation from male conspecifics. Females spent more time investigating female urine odors than female anal sac or vaginal secretion odors, and exhibited a slight general preference for diestrous over estrous stimuli. A positive correlation between the odor investigation times of this study and investigation times of comparable animals to conspecifics in a social situation suggests odor preferences are relatively good indicators of social preferences, and vice versa, in this breed.Physiology & Behavior 06/1974; 12(5):825-33. DOI:10.1016/0031-9384(74)90020-1 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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