Canine anal glands and chemical signals (pheromones).

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (Impact Factor: 1.72). 01/1970; 155(12):1995-6.
Source: PubMed
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The volatile organic compounds from the anal sac secretions of male and female dogs and coyotes were examined using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Short chain (C2–C6) acids and trimethylamine were major constituents. Changes in the type and abundance of the volatiles were examined across state of estrus, species, and gender. No consistent difference in the pattern of volatiles was detected that was indicative of estrus state or gender. Dogs displayed larger amounts of all constituents. The anal sac secretions of a third carnivore, the cat, were examined to see if they contained trimethylamine: none was found.
    Journal of Chemical Ecology 03/1976; 2(2):177-186. · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The function and suppression of urine spraying by cats is discussed as also is the source of tom-cat odour. It seems unlikely that tom-cat odour is derived from the lipid in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney, however its production by the anal glands has not yet been proven. Although male cats show a flehmen response when sniffing urine, smell seems to play a more important role in reproduction in the female than the male. The available data suggests that valeric acid may function as a female/female pheromone in cats by inducing or facilitating oestrus. Nepetalactone, the active ingredient of catnip, is probably not related to any naturally occurring pheromone in the cat but simply acts as an hallucinogenic drug.
    Veterinary Research Communications 12/1978; 3(1):125-136. · 1.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stefanov, I. S., A. Vodenicharov, R. Dimitrov & G. Kostadinov, 2007. Density, shape and dimensions of mast cells in canine anal canal. Bulg. J. Vet. Med., 10, No 2, 77−82. The aim of the present study was to determine the density (number), shape and dimensions of mast cells in the wall of the anal canal (AC) and wall of perianal sinuses (PS) in six healthy mongrel male dogs at the age of 3−4 years. The density of mast cells was determined in 1 mm 2 fields. In AC wall, 276 fields were studied and 8317 mast cells were detected, whereas in the PS wall – 9126 mast cells in 198 fields. The biggest mast cell density was observed in propria of the AC wall (53.3 ± 12.0 /mm²). Relatively less mast cells were observed in the internal anal sphincter (31.7 ± 5.0 /mm²), while their number in the external anal sphincter was considerably lower (7.3 ± 1.5 /mm²). The shape of mast cells was the most elongated in the muscle layer, whereas those in the propria were mostly oval. In the PS wall, the highest mast cell number was observed in the connective tissue, situated between the cover epithelium and the apocrine glands (67.2 ± 12.4 /mm²). Less mast cells were present in the layer with sebaceous glands (43.7 ± 7.0/mm²), and the fewest amount − in the layer with apocrine glands (18.5 ± 4.0 /mm²). The number of mast cells in the external anal sphincter was relatively high (59.9 ± 12.1/mm²). In the last two structures, the shape of mast cells was elongated whereas in the other – predominantly oval.