[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pleural effusion is frequently seen on imaging examinations following elective abdominal surgery and has no clinical significance in most patients. This condition should be distinguished from pulmonary complications that require treatment. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively determine the incidence of pleural effusion in patients submitted to elective abdominal surgery using ultrasound (US), and to assess the possible association with risk factors related to the patients and anesthetic-surgical procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven patients, 21 (56.8%) female, and 16 (43.2%) male aged 29 to 76 years submitted to elective abdominal surgery were evaluated. US was performed preoperatively and 48 hours after surgery in all patients. Associated risk factors were also assessed age > 60 years, sex, obesity, smoking history, alcoholism and associated diseases , and anesthetic-surgical procedure cancer resection, class ASA > 2, duration of surgery, longitudinal incision and incision > 15 cm. Biliar lithiasis (43.2%) and gastrointestinal cancer (43.2%) were the main causes leading to surgery. RESULTS: The incidence of postoperative pleural effusion (PPE) detected by US was 70.3% (26/37). Two of these patients (5.4%) developed pulmonary complications, and one died. The risk factors age > 60 years, smoking history, alcoholism, obesity and associated diseases had no influence on the development of the PPE whereas cancer resection, class ASA > 2, longitudinal incision and incision > 15 cm were significantly statistically associated with the presence of PPE. PPE developed even during antibiotic therapy. The duration of hospitalization was more than 2.4 longer in the patients with PPE. CONCLUSION: PPE is a very frequent condition observed in patients submitted to elective abdominal surgery. Most of the cases of PPE are self-limited, resolving without symptoms. The use of the US for the detection of PPE proved to be effective and should therefore be recommended.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The relationship between pre-transplant body weight and post-transplant outcome has only recently been identified using a single, indirect measure of weight (percent ideal body weight [PIBW]). The literature is equivocal regarding which index is the better indicator of body weight. The purpose of this study was to determine (1) if pre-heart transplant body weight, measured by body mass index (BMI) and PIBW, is associated with post-heart transplant morbidity and mortality and (2) if patient gender, age, and etiology of heart disease affect this association.
The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 01/1999; 18(8):750-763. · 5.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. The correlation between obesity and deficient wound healing has long been established. This review examines the current literature on the mechanisms involved in obesity-related perioperative morbidity. Methods. A literature search was performed using Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Internet searches. Keywords used include obesity, wound healing, adipose healing, and bariatric and surgical complications. Results. Substantial evidence exists demonstrating that obesity is associated with a number of postoperative complications. Specifically in relation to wound healing, explanations include inherent anatomic features of adipose tissue, vascular insufficiencies, cellular and composition modifications, oxidative stress, alterations in immune mediators, and nutritional deficiencies. Most recently, advances made in the field of gene array have allowed researchers to determine a few plausible alterations and deficiencies in obese individuals that contribute to their increased risk of morbidity and mortality, especially wound complications. Conclusion. While the literature discusses how obesity may negatively affect health on various of medical fronts, there is yet to be a comprehensive study detailing all the mechanisms involved in obesity-related morbidities in their entirety. Improved knowledge and understanding of obesity-induced physiological, cellular, molecular, and chemical changes will facilitate better assessments of surgical risks and outcomes and create efficient treatment protocols for improved patient care of the obese patient population.
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