Energetic radiation and the sulfur chemistry of protostellar envelopes: Submillimeter interferometry of AFGL 2591

09/2007; DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20078032
Source: arXiv

ABSTRACT CONTEXT: The chemistry in the inner few thousand AU of accreting envelopes around young stellar objects is predicted to vary greatly with far-UV and X-ray irradiation by the central star. Aim We search for molecular tracers of high-energy irradiation by the protostar in the hot inner envelope. METHODS: The Submillimeter Array (SMA) has observed the high-mass star forming region AFGL 2591 in lines of CS, SO, HCN, HCN(v2=1), and HC15N with 0.6" resolution at 350 GHz probing radial scales of 600-3500 AU for an assumed distance of 1 kpc. The SMA observations are compared with the predictions of a chemical model fitted to previous single-dish observations. RESULTS: The CS and SO main peaks are extended in space at the FWHM level, as predicted in the model assuming protostellar X-rays. However, the main peak sizes are found smaller than modeled by nearly a factor of 2. On the other hand, the lines of CS, HCN, and HC15N, but not SO and HCN(v2=1), show pedestal emissions at radii of about 3500 AU that are not predicted. All lines except SO show a secondary peak within the approaching outflow cone. A dip or null in the visibilities caused by a sharp decrease in abundance with increasing radius is not observed in CS and only tentatively in SO. CONCLUSIONS: The emission of protostellar X-rays is supported by the good fit of the modeled SO and CS amplitude visibilities including an extended main peak in CS. The broad pedestals can be interpreted by far-UV irradiation in a spherically non-symmetric geometry, possibly comprising outflow walls on scales of 3500 -- 7000 AU. The extended CS and SO main peaks suggest sulfur evaporation near the 100 K temperature radius. Comment: Astronomy and Astrophysics, in press

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    ABSTRACT: We aim to reveal the gas energetics in the circumstellar environment of the prototypical high-mass protostellar object AFGL2591 using space-based far-infrared observations of linear rotor molecules. Rotational spectral line signatures of CO, HCO+, CS, HCN and HNC from a 490-1240 GHz survey with Herschel/HIFI, complemented by ground-based JCMT and IRAM 30m spectra, cover transitions with E(up)/k between 5 and ~300 K (750K for 12C16O, using selected frequency settings up to 1850 GHz). The resolved spectral line profiles are used to separate and study various kinematic components. The line profiles show two emission components, the widest and bluest of which is attributed to an approaching outflow and the other to the envelope. We find evidence for progressively more redshifted and wider line profiles from the envelope gas with increasing energy level, qualitatively explained by residual outflow contribution picked up in the systematically decreasing beam size. Integrated line intensities for each species decrease as E(up)/k increases from <50 to 700K. We constrain the following: n(H2)~10^5-10^6 cm^-3 and T~60-200K for the outflow gas; T=9-17K and N(H2)~3x10^21 cm^-2 for a known foreground absorption cloud; N(H2)<10^19 cm^-2 for a second foreground component. Our spherical envelope radiative transfer model systematically underproduces observed line emission at E(up)/k > 150 K for all species. This indicates that warm gas should be added to the model and that the model's geometry should provide low optical depth pathways for line emission from this warm gas to escape, for example in the form of UV heated outflow cavity walls viewed at a favorable inclination angle. Physical and chemical conditions derived for the outflow gas are similar to those in the protostellar envelope, possibly indicating that the modest velocity (<10 km/s) outflow component consists of recently swept-up gas.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 03/2013; 553. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201321069 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [Context] Two competing models describe the formation of massive stars in objects like the Orion Trapezium. In the turbulent core accretion model, the resulting stellar masses are directly related to the mass distribution of the cloud condensations. In the competitive accretion model, the gravitational potential of the protocluster captures gas from the surrounding cloud for which the individual cluster members compete. [Aims] With high resolution submillimeter observations of the structure, kinematics, and chemistry of the proto-Trapezium cluster W3 IRS5, we aim to determine which mode of star formation dominates. [Methods] We present 354 GHz Submillimeter Array observations at resolutions of 1"-3" (1800-5400 AU) of W3 IRS5. ...... [Results] The observations show five emission peaks (SMM1-5). SMM1 and SMM2 contain massive embedded stars (~20 Msun); SMM3-5 are starless or contain low-mass stars (<8 Msun). The inferred densities are high, >= 10^7 cm^-3, but the core masses are small, 0.2-0.6 Msun. The detected molecular emission reveals four different chemical zones. ...... [Conclusions] The proto-Trapezium cluster W3 IRS5 is an ideal test case to discriminate between models of massive star formation. Either the massive stars accrete locally from their local cores; in this case the small core masses imply that W3 IRS5 is at the very end stages (1000 yr) of infall and accretion, or the stars are accreting from the global collapse of a massive, cluster forming core. We find that the observed masses, densities and line widths observed toward W3 IRS 5 and the surrounding cluster forming core are consistent with the competitive accretion of gas at rates of Macc~10^-4 Msun yr^-1 by the massive young forming stars. ......
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2013; 558. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201322087 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Outflow cavities in envelopes of young stellar objects (YSOs) have been pr edicted to allow far-UV (FUV) photons to escape far from the central source, with significant observable e ffects, especially if the protostar is a forming high-mass star suspected of emitting a copious amount of FUV radiation. Indirect evidence of this picture has been provided by models and unresolved single-dish observations, but direct high-resolution data are necessary for con firmation. Previous chemical modeling has suggested that CS and HCN are good probes of the local FUV field, so make good target specie s. Aims. We directly probe the physical conditions of the material in the outflow walls to te st this prediction. Methods. Interferometric observations of the CS(7-6) and HCN(4-3) rotational lines in the high-mass star-forming region AFGL 2591 are carried out in the compact and extended configuration of the SubMillim eter Array (SMA). The velocity structure was analyzed, and integrated maps compared to K-band near-IR observations. A chemical model predicts abundances of CS and HCN for a gas under protostellar X-ray and FUV irradiation, and was used in conjunction with the data to distinguish between physical scenarios. Results. CS and HCN emission was found in spatial coincidence in extended sources displaced up to 7'' from the position of the young star. Their line widths are small, excluding major shocks. Chemical model calculations predict an enhanced abundance of the two molecules in warm, dense, and FUV irradiated gas. Hot dust observed between the molecular emission and the outflow accounts for the necessary attenuation to prevent photodissociation of the molecule s. Conclusions. The SMA data suggest that the outflow walls are heated and chemically altere d by the FUV emission of the central high-mass object, providing the best direct evidence yet of large-sca le direct irradiation of outflow walls.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2009; 506(1). DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/200912620 · 4.48 Impact Factor

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