Article

# The first rotation periods in Praesepe

(Impact Factor: 5.23). 08/2007; DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.12333.x
Source: arXiv

ABSTRACT The cluster Praesepe (age 650 Myr) is an ideal laboratory to study stellar evolution. Specifically, it allows us to trace the long-term decline of rotation and activity on the main-sequence. Here we present rotation periods measured for five stars in Praesepe with masses of 0.1-0.5Ms -- the first rotation periods for members of this cluster. Photometric periodicities were found from two extensive monitoring campaigns, and are confirmed by multiple independent test procedures. We attribute these variations to magnetic spots co-rotating with the objects, thus indicating the rotation period. The five periods, ranging from 5 to 84h, show a clear positive correlation with object mass, a trend which has been reported previously in younger clusters. When comparing with data for F-K stars in the coeval Hyades, we find a dramatic drop in the periods at spectral type K8-M2 (corresponding to 0.4-0.6Ms). A comparison with periods of VLM stars in younger clusters provides a constraint on the spin-down timescale: We find that the exponential rotational braking timescale is clearly longer than 200 Myr, most likely 400-800 Myr. These results are not affected by the small sample size in the rotation periods. Both findings, the steep drop in the period-mass relation and the long spin-down timescale, indicate a substantial change in the angular momentum loss mechanism for very low mass objects, possibly the breakdown of the solar-type (Skumanich) rotational braking. While the physical origin for this behaviour is unclear, we argue that parts of it might be explained by the disappearance of the radiative core and the resulting breakdown of an interface-type dynamo in the VLM regime. Rotational studies in this mass range hold great potential to probe magnetic properties and interior structure of main-sequence stars. Comment: 10 pages, 3 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS

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##### Article: The Factory and The Beehive II. Activity and Rotation in Praesepe and the Hyades
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ABSTRACT: Open clusters are collections of stars with a single, well-determined age, and can be used to investigate the connections between angular-momentum evolution and magnetic activity over a star's lifetime. We present the results of a comparative study of the relationship between stellar rotation and activity in two benchmark open clusters: Praesepe and the Hyades. As they have the same age and roughly solar metallicity, these clusters serve as an ideal laboratory for testing the agreement between theoretical and empirical rotation-activity relations at $\approx$600 Myr. We have compiled a sample of 720 spectra --- more than half of which are new observations --- for 516 high-confidence members of Praesepe; we have also obtained 139 new spectra for 130 high-confidence Hyads. We have collected rotation periods ($P_{rot}$) for 135 Praesepe members and 87 Hyads. To compare $H\alpha$ emission, an indicator of chromospheric activity, as a function of color, mass, and Rossby number $R_o$, we first calculate an expanded set of $\chi$ values, with which we can obtain the $H\alpha$ to bolometric luminosity ratio, $L_{H\alpha}/L_{bol}$, even when spectra are not flux-calibrated and/or stars lack reliable distances. Our $\chi$ values cover a broader range of stellar masses and colors (roughly equivalent to spectral types from K0 to M9), and exhibit better agreement between independent calculations, than existing values. We find no difference between the two clusters in their $H\alpha$ equivalent width or $L_{H\alpha}/L_{bol}$ distributions, and therefore take the merged $H\alpha$ and $P_{rot}$ data to be representative of 600-Myr-old stars. Our analysis shows that $H\alpha$ activity in these stars is saturated for $R_o\leq0.11^{+0.02}_{-0.03}$. Above that value activity declines as a power-law with slope $\beta=-0.73^{+0.16}_{-0.12}$, before dropping off rapidly at $R_o\approx0.4$...
The Astrophysical Journal 09/2014; 795(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/795/2/161 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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##### Article: A Simple Nonlinear Model for the Rotation of Main-sequence Cool Stars. I. Introduction, Implications for Gyrochronology, and Color-Period Diagrams
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ABSTRACT: We here introduce a simple nonlinear model to describe the rotational evolution of cool stars on the main sequence. It is formulated only in terms of the Rossby number (Ro = P/τ), its inverse, and two dimensionless constants which we specify using solar and open-cluster data. The model has two limiting cases of stellar rotation, previously called C and I, that correspond to two observed sequences of fast and slowly rotating stars in young open clusters. The model describes the evolution of stars from C-type, with particular mass and age dependencies, to I-type, with different mass and age dependencies, through the rotational gap, g, separating them. The proposed model explains various aspects of stellar rotation, and provides an exact expression for the age of a rotating cool star in terms of P and τ, thereby generalizing gyrochronology. Using it, we calculate the time interval required for stars to reach the rotational gap—a monotonically increasing, mildly nonlinear function of τ. Beginning with the range of initial periods indicated by observations, we show that the (mass-dependent) dispersion in rotation period initially increases, and then decreases rapidly with the passage of time. The initial dispersion in period contributes up to 128 Myr to the gyro-age errors of solar-mass field stars. Finally, we transform to color-period space, calculate appropriate isochrones, and show that this model explains some detailed features in the observed color-period diagrams of open clusters, including the positions and shapes of the sequences, and the observed density of stars across these diagrams.
The Astrophysical Journal 09/2010; 722(1):222. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/722/1/222 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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##### Article: Stellar rotational periods in the planet hosting open cluster Praesepe
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ABSTRACT: By using the dense coverage of the extrasolar planet survey project HATNet, we Fourier analyze 381 high-probability members of the nearby open cluster Praesepe (Beehive/M44/NGC 2632). In addition to the detection of 10 variables (of \delta Scuti and other types), we identify 180 rotational variables (including the two known planet hosts). This sample increases the number of known rotational variables in this cluster for spectral classes earlier than M by more than a factor of three. These stars closely follow a color/magnitude -- period relation from early F to late K stars. We approximate this relation by polynomials for an easier reference to the rotational characteristics in different colors. The total (peak-to-peak) amplitudes of the large majority (94%) of these variables span the range of 0.005 to 0.04 mag. The periods cover a range from 2.5 to 15 days. These data strongly confirm that Praesepe and the Hyades have the same gyrochronological ages. Regarding the two planet hosts, Pr0211 (the one with the shorter orbital period) has a rotational period that is ~2 days shorter than the one expected from the main rotational pattern in this cluster. This, together with other examples discussed in the paper, may hint that star-planet interaction via tidal dissipation can be significant in some cases in the rotational evolution of stars hosting Hot Jupiters.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2014; 442(3). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu946 · 5.23 Impact Factor