The absorption of p-toluenediamine through human skin in hair dyeing
ABSTRACT After the hair of 5 persons had been dyed with a simple dye, prepared by oxidizing a mixture of 2.5 g of p-toluenediamine sulfate and 2.5 g resorcinol with hydrogen peroxide, an average of 3.7 mg N,N′-diacetyl-p-toluenediamine appeared in the urine. A similar amount of N,N′-diacetyl-p-toluenediamine, namely 4.5 mg, was found in the urine when 5.5 mg of p-toluenediamine was subcutaneously injected. From these data it is calculated that about 4.6 mg of p-toluenediamine was either absorbed during the hair dyeing or produced in vivo from a compound formed during the preparation of the hair dye and absorbed through the skin while the dye was applied to the hair and scalp.
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- "Several authors have studied percutaneous penetration of hair dyes in vivo and in vitro with animal or human tissue (Bronaugh and Congdon, 1984; Beck et al., 1993). There are only limited data from scalp penetration studies on humans after hair dyeing (Kiese and Rauscher, 1968; Maibach and Wolfram, 1981; Wolfram and Maibach, 1985; Goetz et al., 1988). The results of the latter studies indicate that <0.2% of the applied dose of PPD penetrates the skin of the hair-dye user under normal dyeing procedures. "
ABSTRACT: Hairdressers have an increased risk of developing occupational skin diseases due to exposure to skin irritants and sensitizers. In the present work a method of assessing dermal exposure to permanent hair dyes was developed. The sampling performance characteristics of hand wash sampling with bag rinsing were studied for five hair dye compounds. The effect of residence time, sample load and different matrices were studied. Thirty volunteers were exposed to a reference solution of these compounds and to commercial hair dye products. The sampling efficiency after 5 min residence time was between 70 and 90% for the dye components in the hair dye products. Sampling efficiency decreases with increasing residence time, making the time of sampling an important factor. Hand wash sampling should be performed as soon as possible after the work task of interest. We conclude that the sampling efficiency is adequate for measurements of dermal exposure to permanent hair dyes. Hand wash sampling with bag rinsing is a useful tool for field studies of dermal exposure assessment in hairdressers.Annals of Occupational Hygiene 09/2004; 48(6):533-9. DOI:10.1093/annhyg/meh047 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the methodology of observational studies that explored an association between personal use of hair dye products and the risk of bladder cancer. Data were pooled from epidemiological studies using a general variance-based meta-analytic method that employed confidence intervals. The outcome of interest was a summary relative risk (RRs) reflecting the risk of bladder cancer development associated with use of hair dye products vs. non-use. Sensitivity analyses were performed to explain any observed statistical heterogeneity and to explore the influence of specific study characteristics of the summary estimate of effect. Initially combining homogenous data from six case-control and one cohort study yielded a non-significant RR of 1.01 (0.92, 1.11), suggesting no association between hair dye use and bladder cancer development. Sensitivity analyses examining the influence of hair dye type, color, and study design on this suspected association showed that uncontrolled confounding and design limitations contributed to a spurious non-significant summary RR. The sensitivity analyses yielded statistically significant RRs ranging from 1.22 (1.11, 1.51) to 1.50 (1.30, 1.98), indicating that personal use of hair dye products increases bladder cancer risk by 22% to 50% vs. non-use. The available epidemiological data suggest an association between personal use of hair dye products and increased risk of bladder cancer.Public Health Reports 01/2005; 120(1):31-8. · 1.64 Impact Factor
- Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 07/1969; 58(7):777 - 812. DOI:10.1002/jps.2600580702 · 3.01 Impact Factor