Ruptured chordae tendineae in the dog

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (Impact Factor: 1.56). 09/1969; 155(3):535-46.
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Degenerative mitral valve disease (MVD) is the most common heart disease in small breed dogs, and chordae tendineae rupture (CTR) is a potential complication of this disease. The survival time and prognostic factors predictive of survival in dogs with CTR remain unknown. The prevalence and prognosis of CTR in dogs with MVD increases and decreases, respectively, with heart failure class. This study used 706 dogs with MVD. The diagnosis of CTR was based on a flail mitral leaflet with the tip pointing into the left atrium during systole, which was confirmed in several 2-dimension imaging planes using the left and right parasternal 4-chamber views. CTR was diagnosed in 114 of the 706 dogs with MVD (16.1%) and most of these (106/114, 93%) had severe mitral valve regurgitation as assessed by color Doppler mode. CTR prevalence increased with International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) clinical class (i.e., 1.9, 20.8, 35.5, and 69.6% for ISACHC classes Ia, Ib, II, and III, respectively [P < .05]). Long-term follow-up was available for 57 treated dogs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and diuretics) and 58% of these (33/57) survived > 1 year after initial CTR diagnosis (median survival time, 425 days). Clinical class, the presence of ascites or acute dyspnea at the time of diagnosis, heart rate, plasma urea concentration, and left atrial size were predictors of survival. CTR is associated with a higher overall survival time than previously supposed. Its prognosis mostly depends on a combination of clinical and biochemical factors.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 03/2007; 21(2):258-64. DOI:10.1892/0891-6640(2007)21[258:CTRIDW]2.0.CO;2 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic valvular disease (valvular endocardiosis) is the most common cardiac abnormality of the dog. This paper demonstrates how this condition increases in frequency and severity with advancing age by means of a visual impression method for the gross examination of the heart valves. These lesions occur in descending order of frequency and severity in the left atrioventricular valve, the septal cusp of the right atrioventricular valve, the mural cusp of the same valve, the aortic valve and the pulmonary valve. The histopathological features of these lesions are outlined.Résumé. La maladie chronique valvulaire (endocardiose valvulaire) est l'anomalie la plu commune chez le chien. Cette étude démontre comment la fréquence et la sévérité de cett condition s'accroissent avec l'âge par moyens de méthode d'impression visuelle pour l'examer en gros des valves du cœur. Ces lésions se produisent en order diminuant de fréquence et do sévérité dans la valve atrioventriculaire gauche, dans la cuspide septale de la valve atrioventri culaire droite, la cuspide murale de la même valve, la valve de l'aorte et la valve pulmonaire On souligne les caractéristiques histopathologiques de ces lésions.Zusammenfassung. Chronische valvuläre Erkrankung (valvuläre Endocardiosis) ist die gewöhnlichtste Herzabnormalität in Hunden. Diese Zeitschrift legt dar wir, mittels visuellem Eindrucksverfahrens für die allgemeine Untersuchung der Herzklappen, sich diese Kondition an Häufigkeit und Schwere mit zunehmendem Alter steigert. Diese Läsionen treten in abfallender Ordnung an Häufigkeit und Schwere in der linken Herzvorhof-Kammerklappe, der Cuspis septalis der rechten Herzvorhof-Kammerklappe, der Cuspis muralis von derselben Klappe, der aortischen Klappe und der pulmonalen Klappe. Die histopathologischen Merkmale von diesen Läsionen sind umrissen.
    Journal of Small Animal Practice 09/1974; 15(8):511-22. DOI:10.1111/j.1748-5827.1974.tb06529.x · 1.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The paper describes clinical observations in three horses with ruptured mitral valve chordae. Horses with ruptured mitral valve chordae may have a history of sudden onset of acute distress with predominantly respiratory symptoms. On auscultation there will be a widespread pansystolic murmur with an extension of the area of cardiac auscultation. The third heart sound may be very pronounced and unduly prolonged, associated with high volume flow during early ventricular filling in diastole. However, these sounds are not specific for chordal rupture--they are typical of severe mitral regurgitation. The electrocardiogram may show predominantly backward spatial vectors during ventricular depolarisation. The condition gives rise to left ventricular volume overload and pulmonary hypertension would be expected in horses showing signs of cardiovascular disturbance or those recently affected. Care is necessary during post mortem examination to avoid cutting through the mitral valve before a proper assessment has been made of the chordal insertions.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 04/1984; 16(2):125-35. DOI:10.1111/j.2042-3306.1984.tb01880.x · 2.37 Impact Factor
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