Escape responses to three herbivorous gastropods to the predatory gastropod Conus textile.
ABSTRACT The herbivorous gastropods Strombus canarium, Lambis lambis, and Trochus pyramis evince escape responses, probably mediated by distance chemoreception, in the presence of the predatory gastropod Conus textile.In Strombus and Lambis, the response has two components: increase in the absolute rate of locomotion, and direction of locomotion away from the predator. When placed in the presence of C. textile, T. pyramis began moving, generally in the direction it faced.In control observations, a specimen of S. canarium moved at a mean rate of 2·7 mm/sec, by the leaping mode of locomotion characteristic of this and related genera. In the presence of C. textile, the rate increased to 6·8 mm/sec, due primarily to shortening of the lag or recovery period between leaps. In the presence of C. textile, a specimen of L. lambis moved at a rate of 11·9 mm/sec in the same manner as Strombus. In the presence of C. textile, a specimen of T. pyramis progressed at a rate of 1·9 mm/sec, by pedal locomotory waves.Comparison with absolute rates of locomotion by pedal locomotory waves in other marine gastropod molluscs leads to the conclusion that the leaping of Strombus and Lambis does not enable these gastropods to maintain a more rapid long-term rate of movement, but it confers a striking increase in agility, and a single leap provides an almost instantaneous increase in distance from a potential predator.
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ABSTRACT: Haliotis laevigata (Donovan, 1808) responds to contact with predatory gastropods by performing an escape behaviour. Once initiated, the escape response follows a pattern with recognizable sub‐units (Figure 2). Following stimulus contact, animals show considerable agitation and movement of the epipodial tentacles (Figure 1b and c). This is followed by elevation of the shell (Figure 1c), a thrusting in the direction of predator contact (Figure 1d), rapidly alternating shell twisting (Figure 1 el and e2) and rapid locomotion away from the predator (Figure 1f). Detailed analysis of the duration and variability of the sub‐units showed them to be temporally and spatially stereotyped, the exceptions being the predator directed elements. The probability of progression to subsequent sub‐units falls with completion of each sub‐unit (Figure 4b). Pedal muscle electrical activity associated with the escape response can be recorded only in the margins of the muscle.Differences in the threshold of initiation of the response in other species of Haliotis were noted and possible relationships to differences in habitat hypothesized. The organization of the escape response is discussed with reference to its adaptive significance. A comparison is made between this directional type of escape response and the non‐directional type seen in other gastropods such as the nudibranch Tritonia.Marine behaviour and physiology 01/1979; 6(1):65-82.
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ABSTRACT: Ocean acidification poses a range of threats to marine invertebrates; however, the potential effects of rising carbon dioxide (CO2) on marine invertebrate behaviour are largely unknown. Marine gastropod conch snails have a modified foot and operculum allowing them to leap backwards rapidly when faced with a predator, such as a venomous cone shell. Here, we show that projected near-future seawater CO2 levels (961 µatm) impair this escape behaviour during a predator-prey interaction. Elevated-CO2 halved the number of snails that jumped from the predator, increased their latency to jump and altered their escape trajectory. Physical ability to jump was not affected by elevated-CO2 indicating instead that decision-making was impaired. Antipredator behaviour was fully restored by treatment with gabazine, a GABA antagonist of some invertebrate nervous systems, indicating potential interference of neurotransmitter receptor function by elevated-CO2, as previously observed in marine fishes. Altered behaviour of marine invertebrates at projected future CO2 levels could have potentially far-reaching implications for marine ecosystems.Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 01/2014; 281(1774):20132377. · 5.29 Impact Factor
Article: Marine warning via peptide toxinNature 05/1994; 369(6477):192-193. · 42.35 Impact Factor