A controlled clinical trial of alprazolam for the treatment of anxiety.
ABSTRACT The authors report the results of a large-scale double-blind study comparing the anxiolytic effects of alprazolam, a triazolobenzodiazepine; diazepam, a 1,4-benzodiazepine; and placebo in 151 anxious outpatients. Alprazolam and diazepam produced similar clinical improvement, which was significantly larger than improvement produced by placebo and was clearly evident after only 1 week of treatment. The incidence of sedation was lower with alprazolam than with diazepam.
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ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were first of all to document a placebo effect on systolic blood pressure and heart rate during mental arithmetic induced stress and secondly to assess the role of suggestion in producing this effect. Two types of placebo were used, a simple placebo and a placebo with an implied therapeutic action. Both were compared with alprazolam. A placebo response was seen in just over half of the volunteers when the cardiovascular changes to mental arithmetic induced stress in healthy volunteers were measured. This response appeared to be unaffected by the suggested therapeutic effect. Dominant, independent subjects, identified using the Cattell 16 PF personality test were less likely to respond to placebo. Alprazolam (0.5 mg) did not prevent, to a significantly greater degree than placebo, the systolic blood pressure or heart rate increases provoked by the mental stress.British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 02/1992; 33(1):107-10. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We evaluated the relative efficacy of venlafaxine XR on the psychic versus somatic symptoms of anxiety in patients with generalized anxiety disorder as determined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. Data were pooled and analyzed from 1,841 patients with generalized anxiety disorder who participated in five short-term (8-week) double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled studies, two of which had long-term (6-month) extensions. Somatic and psychic anxieties were studied using the Hamilton rating scale for anxiety (HAM-A) factor scores. We examined response rates (≥50% improvement over baseline severity score) in the overall population and in patients with mainly somatic symptomatology at baseline (somatizers). Venlafaxine XR significantly reduced factor scores for both psychic and somatic HAM-A factors compared with placebo, from the first and second weeks of treatment, respectively. Patients treated with venlafaxine XR had significantly higher rates of response than patients receiving placebo on the psychic (58% vs. 38%, P<.001 at week 8; 66% vs. 35% at week 24, P<.001) and somatic (56% vs. 43%, P<.001 at week 8; 67% vs. 47% at week 24, P<.001) factors of the HAM-A. There was a Treatment×Factor interaction (P<.027) in response rates: Patients treated with venlafaxine showed similar somatic and psychic anxiety response rates, whereas placebo-treated patients showed higher somatic compared with psychic response rates. Somatizers showed similar rates of response to the total population for the somatic factor of the HAM-A in either treatment group. Patients with generalized anxiety disorder treated with venlafaxine XR showed similar absolute rates of response on somatic and psychic symptoms, but relative to patients treated with placebo, more improvement in psychic than somatic symptoms. Depression and Anxiety 19:127–132, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.Depression and Anxiety 12/2003; 19(2):127 - 132. · 4.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: The psychopharmacotherapy of somatoform disorders (SD; ICD-10: F45) has been less frequently investigated and is not as well established as in other (neurotic) disorders of ICD-10 section F4, i.e. generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; ICD-10: F41.1). The atypical compound opipramol is very often used to treat SD and GAD in clinical practice in Germany. However, state-of-the-art controlled clinical trials have not yet been performed.Objectives: Two clinical trials were performed with the aim of confirming the efficacy and tolerability of opipramol in SD and GAD.Methods: Both trials were performed as randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter studies. While the GAD trial was a three-arm study with opipramol (200 mg/day) vs. placebo and alprazolam (2 mg/day) for 28 days, the SD trial was a placebo-controlled two-arm study with a treatment duration of 42 days. Each group consisted of about 100 patients.Results: Significant differences (alpha = 0.05) were found for the primary efficacy criteria (HAMA total score in GAD, HAMA somatic subscore in SD) and most of the secondary criteria in favor of the active drug therapies. Considerable differences between the psychopathology of SD and GAD were detected.Conclusion: The well-tolerated anxiolytic opipramol is the first psychotropic drug with proven efficacy in somatoform disorders with effects on symptoms of somatization, anxiety, and depression. The compound is also effective and safe in GAD.Acta Neuropsychiatrica 07/2003; 15(4):217 - 226. · 0.64 Impact Factor