Objective determination of benzodiazepine use and abuse in alcoholics.
Article: Method of rubbling oil shale[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This invention relates to a method of recovering shale oil from a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Unfragmented formation is explosively expanded in a single round of explosions for moving formation located at about the center of a zone of unfragmented formation a greater distance in a given time interval after the beginning of the round than formation located in the unfragmented formation outward from about the center of the unfragmented formation. The explosive expansion forms a fragmented mass of formation particles containing oil shale in the subterranean formation forming an in situ oil shale retort. Gas is introduced into the fragmented permeable mass in the in situ oil shale retort for establishing a retorting zone in the fragmented permeable mass wherein oil shale is retorted to produce gaseous and liquid products, and for advancing the retorting zone through the fragmented mass. Gaseous and liquid products are withdrawn from the bottom of the retort.
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ABSTRACT: A 9 to 10 year follow-up study of 34 female alcoholics was carried out. 21 subjects were interviewed and completed a questionnaire and limited information was obtained on a further 4 subjects. Various aspects of outcome are reported on including: abstinence, prescribed drug abuse, morbidity, marital status and attitudes to agencies that provide help for alcoholics. Six of the subjects died during the follow-up period, two committed suicide. The study supports most of the accepted ideas about female alcoholism but emphasises the problems of suicide, prescribed drug abuse and marital separation. The relevant literature is reviewed. There is a relative paucity of information about alcoholism in females in the literature despite the increased incidence (1,2). Follow-up studies of alcoholics, as with other chronic disorders, help to add to knowledge about the natural history of the disorder and give information about associated problems. A 10 year literature search failed to find a follow-up study of Irish Female Alcoholics.
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ABSTRACT: Many drugs are used in alcoholism treatment with the aim of reducing alcohol consumption and correcting alcohol-related psychosocial problems that lead to excessive drinking or result from it. Alcohol-sensitising drugs are used to reduce alcohol consumption with the expectation that improvement in other problem areas will follow. Drugs that share sedative-hypnotic actions with and cross-dependence to alcohol are often used during acute alcohol withdrawal reactions for symptomatic relief to prevent major withdrawal symptoms, and to prevent and treat seizures. Alcohol abuse may be a form of self-medication, and treatment of an underlying psychiatric disorder, such as depression (with antidepressants), anxiety (with anxiolytics) or psychosis (with antipsychotics), is expected to reduce alcohol consumption. Pretreatment medical and psychiatric assessment of the patient is necessary to ensure that the drug therapy is appropriate to the patient’s therapeutic goals and medical/psychological status. Use of the drug must be systematic and carefully monitored; the duration of treatment is determined individually for each patient on the basis of the response to the treatment as well by the development of adverse clinical effects. Ideally, the drug therapy allows the patient to establish resources necessary for continued abstinence after the drug treatment is stopped.Drugs 03/1984; 27(2):171-82. DOI:10.2165/00003495-198427020-00004 · 4.34 Impact Factor
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