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    ABSTRACT: A 9 to 10 year follow-up study of 34 female alcoholics was carried out. 21 subjects were interviewed and completed a questionnaire and limited information was obtained on a further 4 subjects. Various aspects of outcome are reported on including: abstinence, prescribed drug abuse, morbidity, marital status and attitudes to agencies that provide help for alcoholics. Six of the subjects died during the follow-up period, two committed suicide. The study supports most of the accepted ideas about female alcoholism but emphasises the problems of suicide, prescribed drug abuse and marital separation. The relevant literature is reviewed. There is a relative paucity of information about alcoholism in females in the literature despite the increased incidence (1,2). Follow-up studies of alcoholics, as with other chronic disorders, help to add to knowledge about the natural history of the disorder and give information about associated problems. A 10 year literature search failed to find a follow-up study of Irish Female Alcoholics.
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    ABSTRACT: This invention relates to a method of recovering shale oil from a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Unfragmented formation is explosively expanded in a single round of explosions for moving formation located at about the center of a zone of unfragmented formation a greater distance in a given time interval after the beginning of the round than formation located in the unfragmented formation outward from about the center of the unfragmented formation. The explosive expansion forms a fragmented mass of formation particles containing oil shale in the subterranean formation forming an in situ oil shale retort. Gas is introduced into the fragmented permeable mass in the in situ oil shale retort for establishing a retorting zone in the fragmented permeable mass wherein oil shale is retorted to produce gaseous and liquid products, and for advancing the retorting zone through the fragmented mass. Gaseous and liquid products are withdrawn from the bottom of the retort.
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    ABSTRACT: Prescription and use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines are common in the general population. Prescription of psychotropic drugs is a complex process: patient, physician and healthcare characteristics mediate, interact and influence it. The current study aimed to establish the prevalence and factors associated with the use of antidepressants (ADs) and benzodiazepines (BZDs) in Singapore. The Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) was a nationally representative survey of Singapore Residents aged 18 years and above. Face-to-face interviews were conducted from December 2009 to December 2010. The diagnoses of mental disorders were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI-3.0). The pharmacoepidemiology section was used to collect information on medication use. The overall prevalence estimates for ADs and BZDs use during the 12 months prior to the interview were 1.1% and 1.2% respectively. In all, 2.0% had used ADs and/or BZDs. 'Help seeking for emotional or mental health problems' was the most important predictor for the use of ADs and BZDs---help seekers were much more likely to use ADs (adjusted OR: 31.62, 95% CI: 13.36--74.83) and more likely to use BZDs than non-help seekers in the previous 12 months (adjusted OR: 34.38, 95% CI: 12.97--91.16). Only 27.6% of those with 12-month major depressive disorder (MDD) had sought formal medical help for their problems and ADs were being used by just over a quarter of this 'help-seeking group' (26.3%). We found that the use of ADs and BZDs in our population was relatively low, and 'help-seeking' was the most important predictor of the use of ADs and BZDs. In concordance with research from other Western countries, use of ADs was low among those with 12-month MDD.
    BMC Psychiatry 09/2013; 13(1):231. DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-13-231 · 2.24 Impact Factor