Routine culture of Giardia lamblia trophozoites from human duodenal aspirates.

University Hospital, St Pieter, Brussels, Belgium
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 39.06). 08/1984; 2(8395):137-8. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(84)91050-X
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: The development of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based fingerprinting method for the characterization of Giardia duodenalis isolates is described. The method uses three different PCRs; one is specific for the A (“Polish”) major group of G. duodenalis isolates, another is specific for the B (“Belgian”) group of isolates; and one amplifies a fragment of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene present in all G. duodenalis isolates. The PCRs perform highly sensitively on DNA from cultured trophozoites. Isolates were further characterized by restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR products. In this way, representative isolates from the A and B groups could be grouped together into a number of subgroups. The stability of the genotypes with time and the reproducibility of the two methods were tested on cloned and subcloned lines from a number of isolates and proved to be highly satisfactory. The PCR/RFLP method was evaluated on cysts derived from a number of human patients. It is concluded that the PCR fingerprinting method described in this paper provides a reliable characterization method for Giardia isolates and has the potential to be used as a direct method of typing G. duodenalis cysts from feces.
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 15 isolates of Giardia intestinalis, the first axenic cultures of this organism to be described from Germany, were established in Bonn from faecal cysts obtained from human and animal stool specimens. Measurement of in vitro growth kinetics for 12 of the isolates revealed 3 phenotypes ('rapid', 'medium-rate' and 'slow' growers) characterized by generation times of 9-11 h (5 isolates), 12-15 h (5 isolates) and > or = 18-20 h (2 isolates), respectively. Cloned sublines exhibited growth rates similar to those of the parent isolates. Genetic analyses involving use of the polymerase chain reaction to amplify segments of genes encoding variant-specific surface proteins or the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase, coupled with the detection of restriction-fragment-length polymorphisms, identified genotypes belonging to three previously described genetic groups. Seven isolates (from humans, a calf and a chinchilla) were typed to genetic group I--a potentially zoonotic genotype belonging to assemblage A, one of two major genetic lineages defined by analysis of G. intestinalis from humans and animals. Six isolates (all from humans) showed identity with the group II genotype--recovered thus far only from humans and also belonging to assemblage A. Two isolates (one from a human, the other from a monkey housed at the Cologne zoo) were classified as assemblage B genotypes. The in vitro growth rates correlated strongly with genotype, group I or group II (assemblage A) genotypes accounting for all of the 'rapid' and 'medium-rate' cultures and both assemblage B isolates being 'slow growers'. The data indicate that genetically based metabolic differences may determine how rapidly G. intestinalis isolates can grow in axenic culture.
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    ABSTRACT: Samples of DNA from a panel of Giardia isolated from humans and animals in Europe and shown previously to consist of 2 major genotypes--'Polish' and 'Belgian'--have been compared with human-derived Australian isolates chosen to represent distinct genotypes (genetic groups I-IV) defined previously by allozymic analysis. Homologous 0.52 kilobase (kb) segments of 2 trophozoite surface protein genes (tsa417 and tsp11, both present in isolates belonging to genetic groups I and II) and a 1.2 kb segment of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and examined for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). Of 21 'Polish' isolates that were tested, all yielded tsa417-like and tsp11-like PCR products that are characteristic of genetic groups I or II (15 and 6 isolates respectively) in a distinct assemblage of G. intestinalis from Australia (Assemblage A). Conversely, most of the 19 'Belgian' isolates resembled a second assemblage of genotypes defined in Australia (Assemblage B) which contains genetic groups III and IV. RFLP analysis of gdh amplification products showed also that 'Polish' isolates were equivalent to Australian Assemblage A isolates (this analysis does not distinguish between genetic groups I and II) and that 'Belgian' isolates were equivalent to Australian Assemblage B isolates. Comparison of nucleotide sequences determined for a 690 base-pair portion of the gdh PCR products revealed > or = 99.0% identity between group I and group II (Assemblage A/'Polish') genotypes, 88.3-89.7% identity between Assemblage A and Assemblage B genotypes, and > or = 98.4% identity between various Assemblage B/'Belgian' genotypes. The results confirm that the G. duodenalis isolates examined in this study (inclusive of G. intestinalis from humans) can be divided into 2 major genetic clusters: Assemblage A (= 'Polish' genotype) containing allozymically defined groups I and II, and Assemblage B (= 'Belgian' genotype) containing allozymically defined groups III and IV and other related genotypes.
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