Effect of anticholinergics on tardive dyskinesia. A controlled discontinuation study.

The British Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.34). 10/1984; 145:304-10. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.145.3.304
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, ten chronic schizophrenic patients with pronounced symptoms of tardive dyskinesia (TD) were withdrawn from anticholinergic medication. All patients had previously been under long-term treatment with neuroleptics and anticholinergics for at least two years. The rating-scales used were the AIMS, our own TD Scale, and the Simpson-Angus scale for extra-pyramidal side-effects. The severity of TD decreased significantly in nine patients with in two weeks; this improvement, most pronounced in the oral region (P less than .001), persisted during a six-week placebo period. There was a slight increase in parkinsonian symptoms (P less than .05), which was not a prerequisite for improvement in TD. Hence, discontinuation of anticholinergic medication is a possible therapeutic approach in patients with TD.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is one of the most distressing side effects of antipsychotic treatment. As prevalence studies of TD in Asian population are scarce, a cross-sectional study was performed to assess the frequency of TD in Indian patients with schizophrenia and risk factors of TD. Method Cross-sectional study of 160 Indian patients fulfilling the DSM-IV TR criteria for schizophrenia and who received antipsychotics for at least one year, were examined with two validated scales for TD. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between TD and clinical risk factors. Results The frequency of probable TD in the total sample was 26.4%. The logistic regression yielded significant odds ratios between TD and age, intermittent treatment, and total cumulative antipsychotic dose. The difference of TD between SGA and FGA disappeared after adjusting for important co-variables in regression analysis. Conclusion Indian patients with schizophrenia and long-term antipsychotic treatment have a high risk of TD, and TD is associated with older age, intermittent antipsychotic treatment, and a high total cumulative antipsychotic dose. Our study findings suggest that there is no significant difference between SGAs with regards to the risk of causing TD as compared to FGAs.
    Asian Journal of Psychiatry 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background To assess the tardive dyskinesia (TD) rate in studies of once-monthly long-acting injectable (LAI) paliperidone palmitate (PP) and once-daily oral paliperidone extended release (Pali ER).Methods Completed schizophrenia and bipolar studies for PP and Pali ER (≥ 6 month duration with retrievable patient-level data) were included in this post hoc analysis. Schooler–Kane research criteria were applied using Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores to categorise probable (qualifying AIMS scores persisting for ≥ 3 months) and persistent TD (score persisting ≥ 6 months). Spontaneously reported TD adverse events (AEs) were also summarised. Impact of exposure duration on dyskinesia (defined as AIMS total score ≥ 3) was assessed by summarising the monthly dyskinesia rate.ResultsIn the schizophrenia studies, TD rates for PP (four studies, N = 1689) vs. Pali ER (five studies, N = 2054), were: spontaneously reported AE, 0.18% (PP) vs. 0.10% (Pali ER); probable TD, 0.12% (PP) vs. 0.19% (Pali ER) and persistent TD, 0.12% (PP) vs. 0.05% (Pali ER). In the only bipolar study identified [Pali ER (N = 614)], TD rate was zero (spontaneously reported AE reporting, probable and persistent TD assessments). Dyskinesia rate was higher within the first month of treatment with both PP (13.1%) and Pali ER (11.7%) and steadily decreased over time (months 6–7: PP: 5.4%; Pali ER: 6.4%). Mean exposure: PP, 279.6 days; Pali ER, 187.2 days.Conclusions Risk of TD with paliperidone was low (< 0.2%), regardless of the formulation (oral or LAI), in this clinical trial dataset. Longer cumulative exposure does not appear to increase the risk of dyskinesias.
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    ABSTRACT: Prevalence and risk factors for extrapyramidal syndromes (EPS) were investigated in a sample of 1,559 patients.The overall prevalence of EPS was 29.4% (N = 458). Among the EPS-diagnosed patients, parkinsonism as assessed by the presence of core parkinsonian symptoms (rigidity, tremor, bradykinesia) was present in 65.9% of patients (N = 302), akathisia in 31.8% (N = 145), and acute dystonia in 2.1% (N = 10). Old age and long-term neuroleptic drug (NL) treatment were significantly associated with EPS in both the univariate and the multivariate analyses, whereas no relationship was observed with average NL daily doses and current NL treatment. EPS was diagnosed in 50.2% of 285 patients with persistent tardive dyskinesia (TD). Distribution of EPS in patients with TD showed that tremor and akathisia were more frequent in peripheral TD cases than in orofacial TD cases. Furthermore, there was a stronger association of NL-induced parkinsonism with peripheral TD than with orofacial TD. This study suggests that the association between EPS and TD may be limited to specific subtypes of TD. Peripheral TD showed a higher association with parkinsonism and with akathisia, suggesting that these symptoms may share a common pathophysiology. (J Clin Psychopharmacol 1999;19:203-208)
    Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 01/1999; 19(3):203-208. · 3.76 Impact Factor

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