Localization of a narrow-specificity thyroliberin hydrolyzing pyroglutamate aminopeptidase in synaptosomal membranes of guinea-pig brain.
ABSTRACT In this paper we report the presence of a particulate pyroglutamate aminopeptidase in guinea-pig brain tissue. This activity appears to reside in the synaptosomal membrane and could be released from the membrane by treatment with papain or Triton X-100. By contrast with a previously described broad-specificity soluble pyroglutamate aminopeptidase from guinea-pig brain tissue, the enzyme released from the synaptosomal membrane preparation removed pyroglutamic acid from thyroliberin, acid thyroliberin and less than Glu-His-Gly alone of the peptides tested. Unlike the soluble tissue enzyme the present enzyme was inhibited by the presence of EDTA and the activity released from synaptosomal membranes by papain was found to have a relative molecular mass of 230 000, almost one order of magnitude greater than that reported for the soluble enzyme.
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ABSTRACT: Aminopeptidase N (APN) and neprilysin (NEP) inactivate neuropeptides released into the brain extracellular fluid. We previously showed that the expression of pyroglutamyl peptidase II (PPII), the TRH degrading ecto-enzyme, is regulated in rat brain by amygdaline kindling, a paradigm that activates neuronal pathways in the limbic system increasing the expression of several neuropeptides including TRH and opioids. To understand the specificity of this phenomenon, we studied APN and NEP expression in brains of partially or fully kindled rats (stage II and V), sacrificed 6 h after last stimulus, compared with sham-operated animals. In situ hybridization analysis of NEP mRNA levels showed decreased expression at stage II in CA1, CA2, olfactory tubercle and medial mammillary nucleus, and increased at stage V in CA1 and CA2 cells. These changes were specific for the ipsilateral side. APN mRNA levels, semi-quantified by RT-PCR, were decreased at stage II and increased at stage V, in frontal cortex-olfactory tubercle, and hippocampus. NEP and APN enzymatic activities, determined by fluorometric assays, followed similar variations to their respective mRNA levels. The coordinated changes (in some regions) of NEP and APN expression were opposite to those previously observed for PPII mRNA and activity levels in limbic regions. These results demonstrate that expression of ectopeptidases can be regulated when peptide neurons are activated and, that regulation is enzyme-, region-, and stage-specific.Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 02/2007; 33(3):252-61. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ecto-peptidases hydrolyze peptides in the extracellular fluid of the brain. This process is critical for defining the strength of peptidergic communication. A few studies suggest that brain ecto-peptidase activities are regulated by brain function but the extracellular messengers involved are generally unknown. Pyroglutamyl peptidase II (PPII) is specific for thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), a tripeptide with multiple homeostatic functions in brain. The purpose of this study was to identify regulators of brain PPII activity. Electrical stimulation (multiple tetani) did not change PPII activity in cortical or hippocampal slices. However, in hippocampal slices, blockade of calcium channels with high magnesium, or of L-type calcium channels (LTCC) or NMDA receptors, decreased PPII activity, while blockade of AMPA or GABA(A) receptors did not. Blockade of NMDA receptors did not change PPII mRNA levels but decreased PPII levels. The activity of another ecto-peptidase, aminopeptidase N, was also down regulated by a magnesium blockade, not regulated by NMDA receptor blockade and increased by LTCC blockade. The data show a differential regulation of the activity of ecto-peptidases by that of Ca(2+) channel and that synaptic activity, through the NMDA receptor, specifically regulates that of pyroglutamyl peptidase II.Neuroscience Letters 12/2008; 449(3):211-4. · 2.03 Impact Factor
- Endocrinology 06/2009; 150(5):2021-3. · 4.72 Impact Factor