The biologically active fragment of human parathormone (PTH) and intact bovine PTH were found to induce secretion of both serotonin and histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro. Release of serotonin and histamine was demonstrated with 25 units/ml PTH or higher. This level is within the higher limits of the elevated PTH levels found in advanced uremia. Mast cell secretion by PTH was dose, time and energy dependent and was not cytotoxic. Although mast cell activation was independent of extracellular calcium, it required intracellular calcium, thus resembling the action of certain other peptide secretagogues. Intradermal injection of PTH induced immediate increases in vascular permeability suggesting that PTH could induce mast cell secretion in vivo. Light and electron microscopic observations confirmed mast cell degranulation by exocytosis. These results demonstrate that elevated levels of PTH can induce mast cell secretion in vitro and in vivo and suggest a possible role for mast cells in the pathophysiology of non-allergic disease states.
"Mast cells play a key role in innate immunity. PTH increases mast cell number and secretion of mast cell–derived preformed effectors in rats.(38,39) To date, studies have emphasized the role of mast cell–derived histamine in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption.(40–44) "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is a common cause of metabolic bone disease. These studies investigated the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the detrimental actions of elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) on the skeleton. Bone biopsies from hyperparathyroid patients revealed an association between parathyroid bone disease and increased numbers of bone marrow mast cells. We therefore evaluated the role of mast cells in the etiology of parathyroid bone disease in a rat model for chronic HPT. In rats, mature mast cells were preferentially located at sites undergoing bone turnover, and the number of mast cells at the bone-bone marrow interface was greatly increased following treatment with PTH. Time-course studies and studies employing parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP), as well as inhibitors of platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A, trapidil), kit (gleevec), and PI3K (wortmannin) signaling revealed that mature mast cell redistribution from bone marrow to bone surfaces precedes and is associated with osteitis fibrosa, a hallmark of parathyroid bone disease. Importantly, mature mast cells were not observed in the bone marrow of mice. Mice, in turn, were resistant to the development of PTH-induced bone marrow fibrosis. These findings suggest that the mast cell may be a novel target for treatment of metabolic bone disease.
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 07/2010; 25(7):1637-49. DOI:10.1002/jbmr.49 · 6.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The number and distribution of mast cells were assessed in 116 synovial membranes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in 30 control specimens. Rheumatoid synovial membranes contained a mean of 48.5 mast cells per 20 high-power fields (HPF) (range 0-252), and control synovial membranes had a mean of 3.9 mast cells per 20 HPF (range 0-13) (P less than 0.001). In a comparison of high and low mast cell subgroups in rheumatoid arthritis, counts were directly related to the intensity of clinical synovitis in the affected joint, but not to hemoglobin concentration or erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Joints excised from 5 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were characterized by active bone remodeling with increased osteoid, active resorption by osteoclasts, and trabecular osteoporosis. Mast cells were prominent in both extraosseous pannus and intraosseous invasive tissue. The possible roles of mast cells in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis are discussed.
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