[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The purple pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea L., is a widely distributed species in North America with a history of use as both a marketed pain therapy and a traditional medicine in many aboriginal communities. Among the Cree of Eeyou Istchee in northern Quebec, the plant is employed to treat symptoms of diabetes and the leaf extract demonstrates multiple anti-diabetic activities including cytoprotection in an in vitro model of diabetic neuropathy. The current study aimed to further investigate this activity by identifying the plant parts and secondary metabolites that contribute to these cytoprotective effects. METHODS: Ethanolic extracts of S. purpurea leaves and roots were separately administered to PC12 cells exposed to glucose toxicity with subsequent assessment by two cell viability assays. Assay-guided fractionation of the active extract and fractions was then conducted to identify active principles. Using high pressure liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, the presence of identified actives in both leaf and root extracts were determined. RESULTS: The leaf extract, but not that of the root, prevented glucose-mediated cell loss in a concentration-dependent manner. Several fractions elicited protective effects, indicative of multiple active metabolites, and, following subfractionation of the polar fraction, hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-galactoside) and morroniside were isolated as active constituents. Phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of hyperoside in the leaf but not root extract and, although morroniside was detected in both organs, its concentration was seven times higher in the leaf. CONCLUSION: Our results not only support further study into the therapeutic potential and safety of S. purpurea as an alternative and complementary treatment for diabetic complications associated with glucose toxicity but also identify active principles that can be used for purposes of standardization and quality control.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12/2012; 12(1):245. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The action of the omohyoid muscle on the hemodynamics of the internal jugular vein is controversial. For some authors, contraction of this muscle, by tightening the cervical fascia, promotes jugular venous return. For others, contraction of this muscle compresses the jugular vein in its cervical path. With this latter point in mind, the hemodynamics of the internal jugular vein have been studied in its cervical path by echography in 10 healthy volunteers. One hundred twenty measurements of the venous surface were made at rest, with the mouth open and during deep inspiration. In the last 2 situations, evidence of a significant increase in the venous surface was found above the omohyoid muscle. These data confirm the role of compression of the vein by the omohyoid muscle, leading to modifications in intracerebral venous hemodynamics, which can be affected in yawning.
Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy 02/1988; 10(2):107-12. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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