Amitriptyline potentiates morphine analgesia by a direct action on the central nervous system
ABSTRACT Trycyclic antidepressants are often effective in the management of neuropathic pains. To elucidate the mechanism of tricyclic-induced analgesia, amitriptyline and other drugs were injected into lightly anesthetized rats either systemically or via lumbar intrathecal cannulas. Analgesia was assessed by measuring the latency of the tail flick reflex. Using this model, intrathecal amitriptyline (30 micrograms) significantly enhanced the analgesic effect of an intraperitoneal dose of morphine (0.5 mg/kg) that by itself produced no measurable effect. Given systemically, amitriptyline (30 or 100 micrograms intraperitoneally) was ineffective. Cocaine (30 micrograms) also potentiated morphine analgesia, but iprindole, a tricyclic antidepressant with a very weak inhibitory effect on monoamine uptake, was ineffective. This enhancement of analgesia by intrathecal amitriptyline was prevented by pretreating the rats with p-chlorophenylalanine (300 mg/kg). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that amitriptyline produces analgesia by blocking serotonin uptake and therefore enhancing the action of serotonin at the spinal terminals of an opioid-mediated intrinsic analgesia system.
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Annals of internal medicine 01/2006; 144(2):127. DOI:10.7326/0003-4819-144-2-200601170-00010 · 16.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tapentadol, a μ-opioid agonist and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, has been found to be an effective medication for a wide variety of chronic pain conditions, including back pain, cancer-related pain, and arthritic pain. It has also been found to have fewer gastrointestinal side effects than more traditional opioid-based therapies. More recently, tapentadol extended release has been demonstrated to be effective in the management of painful diabetic neuropathy, an often debilitating condition affecting approximately one-third of all patients with diabetes. This review highlights the most up-to-date basic and clinical studies by focusing on the mechanisms of action of tapentadol and its clinical efficacy, especially with regard to painful diabetic neuropathy.Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 01/2015; 11:95-105. DOI:10.2147/TCRM.S32193 · 1.34 Impact Factor