Article

A horse race of a different color: Stroop interference patterns with transformed words.

Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception & Performance (Impact Factor: 2.4). 11/1984; 10(5):622-39. DOI: 10.1037/0096-1523.10.5.622
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Four experiments investigated Stroop interference using geometrically transformed words. Over experiments, reading was made increasingly difficult by manipulating orientation uncertainty and the number of noncolor words. As a consequence, time to read color words aloud increased dramatically. Yet, even when reading a color word was considerably slower than naming the color of ink in which the word was printed, Stroop interference persisted virtually unaltered. This result is incompatible with the simple horse race model widely used to explain color-word interference. When reading became extremely slow, a reversed Stroop effect--interference in reading the word due to an incongruent ink color--appeared for one transformation together with the standard Stroop interference. Whether or not the concept of automaticity is invoked, relative speed of processing the word versus the color does not provide an adequate overall explanation of the Stroop phenomenon.

4 Bookmarks
 · 
608 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The inability to regulate alcohol consumption has been attributed to an imbalance between stimulus-driven behavioral biases, or action tendencies, and the ability to exert goal-directed control, or working memory capacity (WMC). Previous research assessing the interaction between these variables has not considered the effect of whether individuals' current goals or task demands require goal-directed control. Our aim was to examine the potential interaction of appetitive action tendencies and the ability to exert control over these action tendencies as a function of whether task demands require applying control for successful task completion. Two groups of social drinkers (n = 40 per group) who differed in their ability to regulate their alcohol consumption completed a novel variant of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT), which separately assessed approach and avoid trials. The approach and avoidance responses differentially require goal-directed control, depending on whether the task-relevant response is incongruent with the stimulus-driven action tendency. Results indicated that (a) group differences in AAT indices were only observed on trials that required an avoidance movement, which are trials where the task-relevant response would be incongruent with an approach action tendency, and (b) the extent of the group differences for these avoidance trials was moderated by individual differences in WMC, such that problem drinkers with lower WMC showed greater behavioral bias toward alcohol than those with higher WMC. These findings suggest that difficulties in regulating alcohol consumption arise from a complex interaction of action-tendencies, WMC, and current goals or task demands. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 10/2012; · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Stroop paradigm evaluates susceptibility to interference and is sensitive to dysfunction in frontal lobes and drug effects. The aim of the present study was to establish a simple and reliable computerized version of Stroop color-word test, which can be used for screening of various psychotropic drugs. The standardized method was followed in all cases, by recording the reaction time (RT) in msec in 24 healthy participants using computerized version of Stroop color-word test. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by recording the RTs by a single experimenter on two sessions (interday reproducibility). Validity of the model was further tested by evaluating the psychotropic effect of Zolpidem 5 mg, Caffeine 500 mg, or Placebo on 24 healthy subjects in a randomized, double blind three-way crossover design. The method was found to produce low variability with coefficient of variation less than 10%. Interday reproducibility was very good as shown by Bland-Altman plot with most of the values within ±2SD. There was a significant increase in RTs in Stroop performance with Zolpidem at 1 hr and 2 hrs; in contrast, caffeine significantly decreased RTs in Stroop performance at 1 hr only compared to placebo. The Stroop color-word recording and analysis system is simple, sensitive to centrally acting drug effects, and has potential for future experimental psychomotor assessment studies.
    Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine 04/2013; 35(2):180-9.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Three experiments examined whether asymmetry in interference can be eliminated in spatial Stroop tasks. In Experiment 1, responding to arrows or location words written in Chinese and to their locations created spatial Stroop effects of similar sizes. In Experiment 2, responding to a location word embedded in an outline drawing of arrow did not yield a spatial Stroop effect, but responding to the arrow's direction did yield an effect. In Experiment 3, responding to a location word flanked by an arrow and to the arrow rather than the word produced similar sizes of spatial Stroop effects. These results show that asymmetry in spatial Stroop interference can be eliminated in some situations. Although aspects of the results are consistent with predictions of translation and dimensional overlap models, they are in closest agreement overall with an account in terms of the relative strengths of the relevant and irrelevant stimulus-response associations.
    Acta psychologica 03/2013; 143(1):7-13. · 2.19 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
1,146 Downloads
Available from
May 16, 2014