A reaction between the superoxide free radical and lipid hydroperoxide in sodium linoleate micelles.
ABSTRACT The oxidation of unsaturated fatty acid micelles by the superoxide free radical (), during γ irradiation in the presence of formate, is kinetically distinct from oxidation by hydroxyl free radicals (HO.). The evidence suggests that a direct reaction between () and lipid hydroperoxide initiates a chain oxidation process in the micelles. While tetranitromethane, which reacts rapidly with (), protects the micelles from oxidation, active superoxide dismutase is no more effective than its apoprotein, due to lack of penetration of the micellar environment. We discuss these findings in the light of recent literature, and with reference to their possible significance for biological systems.
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ABSTRACT: Indapamide, a nonthiazide diuretic, exhibits direct vasodilator action as well as natriuretic and diuretic effects. Although calcium antagonist-like activity has been addressed so far, the mechanisms for vasodilator effect are still uncertain. To understand the wide range of indapamide actions, we examined the effects of indapamide on the vascular eicosanoid generation and investigated its mechanisms by using rat vascular smooth muscle cells in culture. Indapamide uniquely increased the prostacyclin generation in the vascular smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it did not affect the vasoconstrictor thromboxane A2. Thiazide diuretics lowered the prostacyclin generation, while nonthiazide derivatives did not affect the biosynthesis. Enzymatic analysis revealed that indapamide affected neither [14C]arachidonate liberation nor prostacyclin synthase of the smooth muscle cells. Indapamide eliminated a stable free radical in a cell-free system, lowered the formation of malondialdehyde from lipid peroxides in rat brain homogenate, and reduced lipid peroxidation by the free radical generating system of xanthine-xanthine oxidase. Indeed, the scavenging action of indapamide significantly attenuated the inhibitory activity of 15-hydroperoxy-arachidonate to prostacyclin synthase activity. These results indicate that indapamide diuretic increases prostacyclin generation in the vascular smooth muscle cells possibly through antioxidant effects and that the enhanced prostacyclin generation is partly responsible for its direct vasodilator action.Hypertension 03/1990; 15(2):216-24. · 6.21 Impact Factor
Article: Bactericidal activity of photocatalytic TiO(2) reaction: toward an understanding of its killing mechanism.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: When titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is irradiated with near-UV light, this semiconductor exhibits strong bactericidal activity. In this paper, we present the first evidence that the lipid peroxidation reaction is the underlying mechanism of death of Escherichia coli K-12 cells that are irradiated in the presence of the TiO(2) photocatalyst. Using production of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an index to assess cell membrane damage by lipid peroxidation, we observed that there was an exponential increase in the production of MDA, whose concentration reached 1.1 to 2.4 nmol. mg (dry weight) of cells(-1) after 30 min of illumination, and that the kinetics of this process paralleled cell death. Under these conditions, concomitant losses of 77 to 93% of the cell respiratory activity were also detected, as measured by both oxygen uptake and reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride from succinate as the electron donor. The occurrence of lipid peroxidation and the simultaneous losses of both membrane-dependent respiratory activity and cell viability depended strictly on the presence of both light and TiO(2). We concluded that TiO(2) photocatalysis promoted peroxidation of the polyunsaturated phospholipid component of the lipid membrane initially and induced major disorder in the E. coli cell membrane. Subsequently, essential functions that rely on intact cell membrane architecture, such as respiratory activity, were lost, and cell death was inevitable.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 10/1999; 65(9):4094-8. · 3.83 Impact Factor