DNA of bovine herpesvirus type 1 in the trigeminal ganglia of latently infected calves.
ABSTRACT Twelve calves infected with bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) were killed when in a latent state of infection. Latency was verified 30 days after virus inoculation of the calves by seroconversion, absence of virus shedding, and in 2 calves, by recrudescence of the infection after they were treated with dexamethasone. By in situ hybridization techniques and autoradiography, DNA of BHV-1 was detected in 13 of 23 trigeminal ganglia of latently infected calves. Viral DNA was restricted to the nucleus of nerve cells. Single neurons harboring BHV-1 DNA were observed in 4.9% of the sections (n = 325) of the trigeminal ganglia. The results obtained correspond to those known from herpes simplex virus infections in mice. The implications for the virus-host relationship are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Venereal infection of heifers and cows with bovine herpesvirus type 1.2 (BoHV-1.2) may result in vulvovaginitis and transient infertility. The acute infection is followed by the establishment of latent infection which can be periodically reactivated. We herein describe the virology and clinico-pathological aspects of acute and recrudescent vulvovaginitis in heifers inoculated with a Brazilian BoHV-1.2 isolate recovered from an outbreak of balanoposthitis. Genital inoculation of isolate SV-56/90 (108.1TCID50/animal) in four eight-months-old heifers resulted in efficient virus replication in the genital mucosa and the development of moderate to severe vulvovaginitis. The inoculated heifers shed virus in genital secretions in titers up to 107.3TCID50/mL until day 10 pi and developed genital congestion, swelling, vesicles and pustules. The vesicles and pustules increased in size eventually coalesced and became covered with a yellowish exsudate. These signs appeared at day 2 pi, increased in severity up to days 5 - 8 pi and progressively subsided thereafter. Dexamethasone administration at day 55 pi resulted in virus shedding in vaginal secretions for up to 10 days. Virus reactivation in all animals was accompanied by clinical recrudescence of the disease, yet less severe than during acute infection. Examination of sacral ganglia and lymph nodes by PCR at day 36 post-reactivation revealed the presence of latent viral DNA in the pudendal (4/4), genito-femoral, sciatic and rectal caudal (3/4) and obturator nerve ganglia (1/4); in addition to several regional lymph nodes. These results demonstrate the virulence of isolate SV-56/90 for heifers and pave the way for its use in further pathogenesis studies and vaccine-challenge trials.Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 03/2008; 28(3):140-148. · 0.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of positive herds and to identify the risk factors for BoHV-1 infection in breeding cattle herds in the Western region of Parana State. The statistic delineation, the serum samples and information regarding the selected farms, were the same employed in the study of bovine brucellosis for Parana State in the context of National Program for Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis. The sampling was performed in two stages. Blood samples were collected from 1930 females aged >24 months from 295 non vaccinated herds. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 using an indirect ELISA. The epidemiological questionnaire was applied on all the selected farms and aimed to obtain epidemiological data. Hundred ninety of the 295 herds were positive for BoHV-1, presenting prevalence of positive herds of 64.41% [58.65-69.87%]. The number (>23) of females aged 24 months (OR=2.22; IC: 1.09-4.51), purchased cattle (OR=2.68; IC: 1.48-4.82), use of common grass (OR=5.93; IC: 1.31-26.82), history of abortion in the last 12 months (OR=2.37; IC: 1.09-5.16) and presence of wildlife animals (OR=8.86; IC: 1.11-70.73) were identified as risk factors for BoHV-1 infection in the multivariate logistic regression. These results indicate that BoHV-1 infection is widespread in the studied region and that factors related to the herd characteristic and management are associated with the infection.Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 03/2008; 28(3):161-168. · 0.54 Impact Factor
Article: Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 (BHV-1)[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Infection of Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) is found in cattle production worldwide. The viral infection causes a well-known respiratory disease (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis or IBR) and reproductive diseases (infectious pustular vulvovaginitis or IPV and infectious balanoposthitis or IBP). Infection of the virus increases a chance of secondary infection in a host. This review article provides concept knowledge of the virus, viral transmission, pathogenesis, diagnosis, control, epidemiology and control of BHV-1 in Thailand and other countries.