Response of plasma beta-endorphins to transcutaneous electrical stimulation in healthy subjects

Physical Therapy (Impact Factor: 2.53). 08/1984; 64(7):1062-6.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A study of 31 healthy volunteers was done to test the hypothesis that analgesia produced by low frequency/high intensity (LoF/Hil) transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is mediated by release of beta-endorphin (beta-E). After randomization, Group 1 (n = 10) received no stimulation (placebo); Group 2 (n = 9) received 30 minutes of high frequency/low intensity (HiF/Lol) TENS; and Group 3 (n = 12) received 30 minutes of low frequency/high density (LoF/Hil) TENS. Blood pressure, pulse, plasma beta-E levels, and evoked potential response were measured before and after treatment. Mean plasma beta-E increased with treatment in Groups 2 and 3 and fell in Group 1, but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant. Sixty-seven percent of Groups 2 and 3 showed an increase in plasma beta-E levels compared with 30 percent in Group 1 (two-sample test of proportions, p less than .05). Evoked potential response, a measure of pain threshold, varied directly with plasma beta-E level independent of the type of treatment applied. This study did not demonstrate a difference between the effects of HiF/Lol versus Lof/Hil TENS on plasma beta-E in healthy subjects.

Download full-text


Available from: Peter R Lichstein, Sep 29, 2015
1 Follower
70 Reads
  • Source
    • "The system visualizes and analyzes the data to locate areas of low impedance compared with surrounding areas, thus indicating ATPs appropriate for hyperstimulation (Figure 3). Therapeutic neurostimulation, using modulated, intense electrical pulses, is then applied locally to specific painful ATPs, providing highly effective pain relief by stimulating the release of endorphins.31–34 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Low back pain in patients with myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by painful active myofascial trigger points (ATPs) in muscles. This article reviews a novel, noninvasive modality that combines simultaneous imaging and treatment, thus taking advantage of the electrodermal information available from imaged ATPs to deliver localized neurostimulation, to stimulate peripheral nerve endings (Aδ fibers) and in turn, to release endogenous endorphins. "Hyperstimulation analgesia" with localized, intense, low-rate electrical pulses applied to painful ATPs was found to be effective in 95% patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain, in a clinical validation study.
    Journal of Pain Research 06/2013; 6:487-491. DOI:10.2147/JPR.S47540
  • Source
    • "TENS is assumed to trigger an opioid-mediated suppression of dorsal horn neurons through the concerted activation of the periaqueductal gray and the rostral ventral medulla [76]. For example, the concentrations of β-endorphins have been shown to increase in the bloodstream and cerebrospinal fluid of healthy subjects after administration of either high (101–108 Hz) or low (4–7 Hz) frequency TENS [77, 78]. The application of various TENS protocols in adult, healthy subjects lead to a significant increase of PPTs, with continuous high-frequency stimulations (80 Hz) being more effective in increasing PPTs [79]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neuroplasticity underlies the brain's ability to alter perception and behavior through training, practice, or simply exposure to sensory stimulation. Improvement of tactile discrimination has been repeatedly demonstrated after repetitive sensory stimulation (rSS) of the fingers; however, it remains unknown if such protocols also affect hand dexterity or pain thresholds. We therefore stimulated the thumb and index finger of young adults to investigate, besides testing tactile discrimination, the impact of rSS on dexterity, pain, and touch thresholds. We observed an improvement in the pegboard task where subjects used the thumb and index finger only. Accordingly, stimulating 2 fingers simultaneously potentiates the efficacy of rSS. In fact, we observed a higher gain of discrimination performance as compared to a single-finger rSS. In contrast, pain and touch thresholds remained unaffected. Our data suggest that selecting particular fingers modulates the efficacy of rSS, thereby affecting processes controlling sensorimotor integration.
    Neural Plasticity 01/2012; 2012(1):974504. DOI:10.1155/2012/974504 · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The rectangular waveform is claimed to be the typical delivery mode of electrical stimulation [60] [61] [62] while preserving " the essential features of Nemec's original design " [63]. The choice of 4 Hz as the treatment frequency was based on previous studies in TENS that demonstrated the low frequency stimulates BEND release [27] [35] [64] [65]. Also, the choice of 20 minutes as treatment time was based on previous research in TENS that demonstrated BEND was released following this application time [28] [38] [40]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Interferential therapy (IFT) is a common electrophysical agent used by physiotherapists for pain man-agement. However, there is ongoing debate regarding the hypoalgesic and neurophysiologic mechanisms by which IFT reduces pain. This study aimed to investigate the effect of IFT on plasma beta-endorphin (BEND) levels in the rat model as a proposed analgesic mechanism of IFT. Methods: Twelve adult male Wistar rats received an intra-plantar injection of 0.15 ml of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) into the right hind paw under anaesthesia. Five days post FCA, the rats were anesthetized and were divided into two groups (n = 6). One group received IFT at 4 Hz for 20 minutes on the inflamed paw while the other group received sham IFT. One ml of blood was withdrawn from the tail vein of both groups before IFT application but after anaesthesia and then again at the end of the 20 minutes of IFT/sham IFT. Collected blood was centrifuged and plasma was removed for analysis of BEND. Concentrations of BEND were measured in the plasma using ELISA radioimmunoassay. Results: There was a slight increase in the BEND levels in the treatment group following 20 minutes of IFT. However, this increase was not statistically significant neither within (Z = −0.314, P = 0.753, Wilcoxon test) or between the treatment and sham groups (Z = −0.363, P = 0.79, Mann-Whitney U test). Conclusion: The findings suggested that the release of plasma BEND may not be the mechanism by which 4 Hz IFT have an analgesic effect.
    Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 01/2012; 33(2):97-104. DOI:10.3233/PPR-2012-0002
Show more