Increased rate of E-rosette formation by T lymphocytes of pregnant women who drink ethanol
Department of Biochemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United StatesClinical Immunology and Immunopathology 11/1984; 33(1):67-79. DOI: 10.1016/0090-1229(84)90293-9
Ethanol use by pregnant women increased, in a dose-dependent manner, the rate of sheep erythrocyte rosette (E-rosette) formation with T lymphocytes. The time curve for E-rosette formation by T cells from nondrinking subjects was biphasic, with a rapid formation of half the E-rosettes within the first 16 min, followed by a much slower rate for E-rosette formation until the maximal T-cell percentage was reached overnight. For pregnant drinkers, greater than 85% of the E-rosettes formed during the initial rate period, with a concomitant smaller number forming during the overnight incubation. Despite the faster initial rate of E-rosette formation in the drinking subjects, the total percentage T cells was the same for both groups. Other demographic factors, like tobacco or marijuana use, or trimester, did not significantly contribute to the observed differences. An increase in the rate of E rosetting was also obtained by incubating lymphocytes from nondrinkers overnight in physiologically attainable concentrations of ethanol (less than or equal to 0.1%). These results demonstrate that drinking by pregnant women, even at relatively moderate levels (2 oz/week absolute ethanol), causes alterations in their cellular immune systems. With the ability of ethanol to cross the placental barrier and persist in utero, it is apparent that these levels of ethanol have the potential to affect the developing fetal immune system.
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ABSTRACT: Simultaneous and independent use of cocaine and alcohol by heroin addicts was shown to variably modulate the ability of their T cells to form E-rosettes with sheep erythrocytes (E). As reported previously, the percentages of E-rosette-forming T cells of both active and total types were depressed in association with heroin addiction. We show here that the kinetic curve of the rate of E-rosette formation is also depressed by heroin use and that the use of cocaine but not alcohol by heroin addicts reverses depression of E-rosette formation by heroin. The percentages of E-rosette-forming T cells from the bloods of heroin addicts who used both alcohol and cocaine, as well as the kinetic rate curves of E-rosette formation, were intermediate between the essentially normal levels found for heroin addicts who used cocaine and the severely depressed levels evident for users of heroin alone or heroin plus alcohol. Modulation of the levels of E-rosette formation by alcohol used in conjunction with cocaine and/or heroin was variably dose dependent. Polydrug effects evident by analyses of E-rosette formation were not seen when the percentages of lymphocytes reactive with LYT-3 (anti-E-receptor, 9.6 epitope) and OKT-3 (anti-total T cell) monoclonal antibodies were assessed cytofluorometrically, although the data suggested that subnormal percentages of LYT-3+ T cells were present when heroin addicts also used cocaine. These findings are relevant to basic understanding of T-cell physiology from a neuroimmunological perspective and also suggest ways that addictive drugs may modulate the immunocompetence of drug addicts.Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 12/1986; 41(2):254-64. DOI:10.1016/0090-1229(86)90109-1
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ABSTRACT: Knowing the in vitro effects of morphine on monkey leukocytes would be helpful in extending the utility of a monkey model for psychoneuroimmunological investigations. Morphine effects on T11, Leu2a, and Leu3a antigenic markers on leukocytes from rhesus monkeys and humans were assessed by using single- and two-color cytofluorometric analyses. Kinetics of expression of these markers was determined after modulation of the original complement of T11 markers from the surface of T11(+) cells. Percentages of leukocytes detectable by directly staining these markers before modulation were within the expected range for monkey and human cells. Also, as expected, T11 modulation reduced the percentages of cells expressing T11. This reduction was particularly obvious for T11 in the single-color analyses, with reductions being greater for monkey than human cells. Furthermore, in the single-color analyses, the effects of morphine on kinetics of T11 expression were quite similar for both human and monkey cells. In the two-color analyses, the simultaneous expression of T11 and Leu3a markers was uniform for both monkey and human cells. The effects of morphine on kinetics of expression of these markers varied only slightly between species. On the other hand, the distribution of Leu2a on T11 cells was markedly different for monkey and human T-cells. Whereas all human Leu2a(+) cells expressed similar numbers of T11 receptors, monkey cells with high-density Leu2a expressed fewer T11 markers than those with low-density Leu2a. The effects of morphine on kinetics of Leu2a and T11 expression were at obvious variance between species.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Journal of Neuroscience Research 01/1988; 19(1):157-65. DOI:10.1002/jnr.490190121 · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A study on a group of fifty heroin abusers was conducted to analyse their immunocompetence. Absolute numbers of lymphocytes and their sub-populations in the peripheral blood were used as the parameter. Sub-populations of lymphocytes were distinguished on the basis of their ability to form rosettes with sheep's erythrocytes. Another group of fifty individuals comprising non-abusers was studied as control. The mean values for total lymphocytes and the T-cells in non-abusers were within the expected normal range, while those obtained for the heroin abusers were below normal value. Difference between the cell counts of the two groups was statistically significant. The mean of non-rosetting cells of the two groups of population studied did not differ significantly. Results indicate a marked deficiency in the cellular immune compartment of the subjects with not much impairment of the humoral immune system. The chi-square test for independence between lymphocyte counts and drug abuse revealed a degree of association with 88% confidence.Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore 12/1990; 19(6):823-6. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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