Increased rate of E-rosette formation by T lymphocytes of pregnant women who drink ethanol.
ABSTRACT Ethanol use by pregnant women increased, in a dose-dependent manner, the rate of sheep erythrocyte rosette (E-rosette) formation with T lymphocytes. The time curve for E-rosette formation by T cells from nondrinking subjects was biphasic, with a rapid formation of half the E-rosettes within the first 16 min, followed by a much slower rate for E-rosette formation until the maximal T-cell percentage was reached overnight. For pregnant drinkers, greater than 85% of the E-rosettes formed during the initial rate period, with a concomitant smaller number forming during the overnight incubation. Despite the faster initial rate of E-rosette formation in the drinking subjects, the total percentage T cells was the same for both groups. Other demographic factors, like tobacco or marijuana use, or trimester, did not significantly contribute to the observed differences. An increase in the rate of E rosetting was also obtained by incubating lymphocytes from nondrinkers overnight in physiologically attainable concentrations of ethanol (less than or equal to 0.1%). These results demonstrate that drinking by pregnant women, even at relatively moderate levels (2 oz/week absolute ethanol), causes alterations in their cellular immune systems. With the ability of ethanol to cross the placental barrier and persist in utero, it is apparent that these levels of ethanol have the potential to affect the developing fetal immune system.
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ABSTRACT: It has been shown that the transfer of immunity via lactation plays an important role in providing eariy protection to the neonate. Maternal ethanol consumption also results in a reduced transfer of immunity to their neonates against a Trichinella spiralis infection. Because of the known presence of cytokines in milk and their important role in inflammation, we tested the effects of maternal ethanol consumption on cytokine production by milk and blood cells from T. spiralis- infected rats. With T. spiralis antigen, Concanavalin A (Con A) or lipopolysaccharide stimulation, milk cells from both ethanol-treated and pair-fed groups were capable of producing tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-2. There were no differences between groups for TNF or IL-6 production by milk cells. Milk cells from the ethanol group produced a significantly higher amount of IL-2 upon Con A stimulation, as compared with that from the pair-fed group (16 ± 4 units/106 cells vs. 4 ± 1 units/106 cells, p < 0.05). After stimulation with Con A, blood cells from the ethanol group produced significantly lower amounts of TNF (17 ± 15 units/106 cells) than that from the pair-fed group (102 ± 64 units/106 cells, p < 0.05). The amount of TNF and IL-6 produced by milk cells was significantly lower, as compared with that produced by blood cells. This study suggests that ethanol consumption has some modulatory effects on cytokine production by milk and blood cells.Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 03/1994; 18(2):398 - 402. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of maternal ethanol intake during lactation on neonatal cytochrome P4502E1 was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Dams were exposed to 15% (v/v) ethanol in drinking water from day 1 of lactation to 4, 7 or 14 days postpartum. Significant (P < 0.01) enhancement of both hepatic and renal N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) demethylase, an activity of P4502E1, was observed in lactating mothers given ethanol in drinking water. Demethylase activity also significantly increased (P < 0.01) in the 7- and 14-day livers of both female and male pups and in the 7- and 14-day female and 14-day male kidneys exposed to ethanol through the transmammary route. Cytochrome P4502E1 protein content, assayed by immunoblotting, increased in the maternal liver and kidney of all groups consuming ethanol. Neonatal P4502E1 protein content increased in the 7- and 14-day livers of both sexes and 14-day female kidneys exposed translactationally to ethanol. No effect of ethanol on enzyme activity or protein content of P4502E1 was observed in the liver or kidney of 4-day-old neonates. These results demonstrate the translactational effect of ethanol on neonatal P4502E1 enzyme, which is involved in the metabolism of many low molecular weight xenobiotics, and indicate the possibility of alterations occurring in the kinetics of neonatal drug and xenobiotic metabolism and also in processes connected with perinatal carcinogenesis.Food and Chemical Toxicology 05/1996; 34(5):469-76. · 3.01 Impact Factor
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 12/2006; 496(1):711 - 721. · 4.38 Impact Factor