Increased rate of E-rosette formation by T lymphocytes of pregnant women who drink ethanol.
ABSTRACT Ethanol use by pregnant women increased, in a dose-dependent manner, the rate of sheep erythrocyte rosette (E-rosette) formation with T lymphocytes. The time curve for E-rosette formation by T cells from nondrinking subjects was biphasic, with a rapid formation of half the E-rosettes within the first 16 min, followed by a much slower rate for E-rosette formation until the maximal T-cell percentage was reached overnight. For pregnant drinkers, greater than 85% of the E-rosettes formed during the initial rate period, with a concomitant smaller number forming during the overnight incubation. Despite the faster initial rate of E-rosette formation in the drinking subjects, the total percentage T cells was the same for both groups. Other demographic factors, like tobacco or marijuana use, or trimester, did not significantly contribute to the observed differences. An increase in the rate of E rosetting was also obtained by incubating lymphocytes from nondrinkers overnight in physiologically attainable concentrations of ethanol (less than or equal to 0.1%). These results demonstrate that drinking by pregnant women, even at relatively moderate levels (2 oz/week absolute ethanol), causes alterations in their cellular immune systems. With the ability of ethanol to cross the placental barrier and persist in utero, it is apparent that these levels of ethanol have the potential to affect the developing fetal immune system.
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ABSTRACT: Immunity to the intestinal parasite Trichinella spiralis can be transferred from the mother to the neonate during lactation. Previous studies in our laboratory showed that the passage of immunity to pups from ethanol-treated dams was depressed. This study examined the effect of ethanol consumption during pregnancy and lactation on the T. spiralis-associated immune components in milk and blood. Groups of female rats were fed either ethanol-containing or isocaloric liquid diets for 30 days before T. spiralis infection, mated and maintained on corresponding diets through pregnancy and lactation. Two-color flow cytometric analysis was performed for lymphocyte populations, enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay for specific IgG, and radial immunodiffusion assay for total IgG. The percentage of total T cells and their subsets, T helper cells and T cytotoxic/suppressor cells in milk and those in blood were similar between pair-fed and ethanol-treated animals. However, the percentage of natural killer cells in milk from ethanol animals was significantly reduced compared with the pair-fed group (33% vs. 54%). The percentage of activated or memory type T helper cell subset (OX22−W3/25+) was significantly increased in the blood of the ethanol-treated group. Pair-fed animals showed higher T. spiralis-specific IgG antibody levels both in milk and blood compared with ethanol-treated animals. In ethanol-treated animals, specific IgG levels and total IgG concentration in milk were significantly lower than those in blood, whereas in pair-fed animals, only total IgG concentration in milk was lower than that in blood. This study indicates that ethanol consumption during pregnancy and lactation alters the maternal immune system. Decreased milk natural killer cells and depressed specific antibody levels in milk of ethanol-treated animals are possible contributing factors to the previously observed depressed lactational immune transfer to the pups.Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 05/1993; 17(3):532 - 538. DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.1993.tb00794.x · 3.31 Impact Factor
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 12/2006; 496(1):711 - 721. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1987.tb35834.x · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has been shown that the transfer of immunity via lactation plays an important role in providing eariy protection to the neonate. Maternal ethanol consumption also results in a reduced transfer of immunity to their neonates against a Trichinella spiralis infection. Because of the known presence of cytokines in milk and their important role in inflammation, we tested the effects of maternal ethanol consumption on cytokine production by milk and blood cells from T. spiralis- infected rats. With T. spiralis antigen, Concanavalin A (Con A) or lipopolysaccharide stimulation, milk cells from both ethanol-treated and pair-fed groups were capable of producing tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-2. There were no differences between groups for TNF or IL-6 production by milk cells. Milk cells from the ethanol group produced a significantly higher amount of IL-2 upon Con A stimulation, as compared with that from the pair-fed group (16 ± 4 units/106 cells vs. 4 ± 1 units/106 cells, p < 0.05). After stimulation with Con A, blood cells from the ethanol group produced significantly lower amounts of TNF (17 ± 15 units/106 cells) than that from the pair-fed group (102 ± 64 units/106 cells, p < 0.05). The amount of TNF and IL-6 produced by milk cells was significantly lower, as compared with that produced by blood cells. This study suggests that ethanol consumption has some modulatory effects on cytokine production by milk and blood cells.Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 03/1994; 18(2):398 - 402. DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.1994.tb00032.x · 3.31 Impact Factor