Microinjection of human cell extracts corrects xeroderma pigmentosum defect.

The EMBO Journal (Impact Factor: 10.75). 02/1983; 2(5):637-41.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cultured fibroblasts of patients with the DNA repair syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) were injected with crude cell extracts from various human cells. Injected fibroblasts were then assayed for unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) to see whether the injected extract could complement their deficiency in the removal of u.v.-induced thymidine dimers from their DNA. Microinjection of extracts from repair-proficient cells (such as HeLa, placenta) and from cells belonging to XP complementation group C resulted in a temporary correction of the DNA repair defect in XP-A cells but not in cells from complementation groups C, D or F. Extracts prepared from XP-A cells were unable to correct the XP-A repair defect. The UDS of phenotypically corrected XP-A cells is u.v.-specific and can reach the level of normal cells. The XP-A correcting factor was found to be sensitive to the action of proteinase K, suggesting that it is a protein. It is present in normal cells in high amounts, it is stable on storage and can still be detected in the injected cells 8 h after injection. The microinjection assay described in this paper provides a useful tool for the purification of the XP-A (and possibly other) factor(s) involved in DNA repair.


Available from: Wim Vermeulen, Jun 03, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Previously the human nucleotide excision repair gene ERCC3 was shown to be responsible for a rare combination of the autosomal recessive DNA repair disorders xeroderma pigmentosum (complementation group B) and Cockayne's syndrome (complementation group C). The human and mouse ERCC3 proteins contain several sequence motifs suggesting that it is a nucleic acid or chromatin binding helicase. To study the significance of these domains and the overall evolutionary conservation of the gene, the homolog from Drosophila melanogaster was isolated by low stringency hybridizations using two flanking probes of the human ERCC3 cDNA. The flanking probe strategy selects for long stretches of nucleotide sequence homology, and avoids isolation of small regions with fortuitous homology. In situ hybridization localized the gene onto chromosome III 67E3/4, a region devoid of known D.melanogaster mutagen sensitive mutants. Northern blot analysis showed that the gene is continuously expressed in all stages of fly development. A slight increase (2-3 times) of ERCC3Dm transcript was observed in the later stages. Two almost full length cDNAs were isolated, which have different 5' untranslated regions (UTR). The SD4 cDNA harbours only one long open reading frame (ORF) coding for ERCC3Dm. Another clone (SD2), however, has the potential to encode two proteins: a 170 amino acids polypeptide starting at the optimal first ATG has no detectable homology with any other proteins currently in the data bases, and another ORF beginning at the suboptimal second startcodon which is identical to that of SD4. Comparison of the encoded ERCC3Dm protein with the homologous proteins of mouse and man shows a strong amino acid conservation (71% identity), especially in the postulated DNA binding region and seven 'helicase' domains. The ERCC3Dm sequence is fully consistent with the presumed functions and the high conservation of these regions strengthens their functional significance. Microinjection and DNA transfection of ERCC3Dm into human xeroderma pigmentosum (c.g. B) fibroblasts and group 3 rodent mutants did not yield detectable correction. One of the possibilities to explain these negative findings is that the D.melanogaster protein may be unable to function in a mammalian repair context.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/1992; 20(21):5541-8. DOI:10.1093/nar/20.21.5541 · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is caused by defects in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. NER removes helix-distorting DNA lesions, such as UV-induced photodimers, from the genome. Patients suffering from XP exhibit exquisite sun sensitivity, high incidence of skin cancer, and in some cases neurodegeneration. The severity of XP varies tremendously depending upon which NER gene is mutated and how severely the mutation affects DNA repair capacity. XPF-ERCC1 is a structure-specific endonuclease essential for incising the damaged strand of DNA in NER. Missense mutations in XPF can result not only in XP, but also XPF-ERCC1 (XFE) progeroid syndrome, a disease of accelerated aging. In an attempt to determine how mutations in XPF can lead to such diverse symptoms, the effects of a progeria-causing mutation (XPF(R153P)) were compared to an XP-causing mutation (XPF(R799W)) in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant XPF harboring either mutation was purified in a complex with ERCC1 and tested for its ability to incise a stem-loop structure in vitro. Both mutant complexes nicked the substrate indicating that neither mutation obviates catalytic activity of the nuclease. Surprisingly, differential immunostaining and fractionation of cells from an XFE progeroid patient revealed that XPF-ERCC1 is abundant in the cytoplasm. This was confirmed by fluorescent detection of XPF(R153P)-YFP expressed in Xpf mutant cells. In addition, microinjection of XPF(R153P)-ERCC1 into the nucleus of XPF-deficient human cells restored nucleotide excision repair of UV-induced DNA damage. Intriguingly, in all XPF mutant cell lines examined, XPF-ERCC1 was detected in the cytoplasm of a fraction of cells. This demonstrates that at least part of the DNA repair defect and symptoms associated with mutations in XPF are due to mislocalization of XPF-ERCC1 into the cytoplasm of cells, likely due to protein misfolding. Analysis of these patient cells therefore reveals a novel mechanism to potentially regulate a cell's capacity for DNA repair: by manipulating nuclear localization of XPF-ERCC1.
    PLoS Genetics 03/2010; 6(3):e1000871. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000871 · 8.17 Impact Factor