A hominine hip bone, KNM-ER 3228, from East Lake Turkana, Kenya
ABSTRACT A male hominine partial hip bone, KNM -ER 3228, from East Lake Turkana , Kenya is described. In most of its features this specimen resembles modern human male hip bones. This is especially true for functional features related to weight transfer from the trunk to the pelvis and within the pelvis, and to the effective action of musculature arising from the pelvis during the performance of the modern human type of bipedalism . KNM -ER 3228 is very similar to the Olduvai Hominid 28 and the Arago XLIV hip bones, both attributed to Homo erectus .
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ABSTRACT: In the recent description of the hominin postcranial material from Dmanisi, Georgia, Lordkipanidze and colleagues (Lordkipanidze et al.  Nature 449: 305-310) claim that the Dmanisi hominins walked with more medially oriented feet than do modern humans. They draw this functional inference from two postcranial features: a wide talar neck angle and a slight medial torsion of the tibia. However, we believe that the data provided by the authors fail to support their conclusions. Talar neck angle and tibial torsion values from the Dmanisi specimens fall comfortably within the range of modern human variation. We further submit that foot orientation cannot be reliably deduced from the tibia and talus alone.American Journal of Physical Anthropology 08/2008; 136(4):375-8. DOI:10.1002/ajpa.20827 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We review the evolution of human bipedal locomotion with a particular emphasis on the evolution of the foot. We begin in the early twentieth century and focus particularly on hypotheses of an ape-like ancestor for humans and human bipedal locomotion put forward by a succession of Gregory, Keith, Morton and Schultz. We give consideration to Morton's (1935) synthesis of foot evolution, in which he argues that the foot of the common ancestor of modern humans and the African apes would be intermediate between the foot of Pan and Hylobates whereas the foot of a hypothetical early hominin would be intermediate between that of a gorilla and a modern human. From this base rooted in comparative anatomy of living primates we trace changing ideas about the evolution of human bipedalism as increasing amounts of postcranial fossil material were discovered. Attention is given to the work of John Napier and John Robinson who were pioneers in the interpretation of Plio-Pleistocene hominin skeletons in the 1960s. This is the period when the wealth of evidence from the southern African australopithecine sites was beginning to be appreciated and Olduvai Gorge was revealing its first evidence for Homo habilis. In more recent years, the discovery of the Laetoli footprint trail, the AL 288-1 (A. afarensis) skeleton, the wealth of postcranial material from Koobi Fora, the Nariokotome Homo ergaster skeleton, Little Foot (Stw 573) from Sterkfontein in South Africa, and more recently tantalizing material assigned to the new and very early taxa Orrorin tugenensis, Ardipithecus ramidus and Sahelanthropus tchadensis has fuelled debate and speculation. The varying interpretations based on this material, together with changing theoretical insights and analytical approaches, is discussed and assessed in the context of new three-dimensional morphometric analyses of australopithecine and Homo foot bones, suggesting that there may have been greater diversity in human bipedalism in the earlier phases of our evolutionary history than previously suspected.Journal of Anatomy 06/2004; 204(5):403-16. DOI:10.1111/j.0021-8782.2004.00296.x · 2.23 Impact Factor
Article: Early Homo: Who, When, and Where[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The origin of Homo is argued to entail niche differentiation resulting from increasing terrestriality and dietary breadth relative to the better known species of Australopithecus (A. afarensis, A. anamensis, A. africanus). I review the fossil evidence from ∼2.5 to 1.5 Ma in light of new finds and analyses that challenge previous inferences. Minimally, three cranial morphs of early Homo (including Homo erectus) exist in eastern Africa (1.9–1.4 Ma), with at least two in southern Africa. Because of taphonomic damage to the type specimen of Homo habilis, in East Africa two species with different masticatory adaptations are better identified by their main specimen (i.e., the 1813 group and the 1470 group) rather than a species name. Until recently, the 1470 group comprised a single specimen. South African early Homo are likely distinct from these groups. Together, contemporary early H. erectus and early Homo are bigger than Australopithecus (∼30%). Early H. erectus (including recently discovered small specimens) is larger than non-erectus Homo (∼15%–25%), but their size ranges overlap. All early Homo are likely to exhibit substantial sexual dimorphism. Early H. erectus is less “modern” and its regional variation in size more substantial than previously allowed. These findings form the baseline for understanding the origin of the genus.Current Anthropology 12/2012; 53. DOI:10.1086/667695 · 2.93 Impact Factor