Hemoglobin concentration and aerobic work capacity in women following induced erythrocythemia
ABSTRACT The effect of induced erythrocythemia on hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and aerobic work capacity was determined for nine women. Cycle tests were performed at prereinfusion (T1), 2 days after a placebo infusion (T2), 2 days postreinfusion of 334 ml of red blood cells (T3), 8 days postreinfusion (T4), and 14 days postreinfusion (T5). T1 and T2 responses did not differ, negating a placebo effect. [Hb] increased from 12.7 g X dl at T1 to 14.7 g X dl at T3 and then remained constant at T4 and T5. Hematocrit increased from 38.1% at T1 to 44.9% at T3 and then remained constant at T4 and T5. Submaximal O2 uptake (VO2) and stroke volume (SV) did not change from T1 through T5. Submaximal cardiac output (Q) and heart rate (HR) decreased from T1 to T3 and then remained constant at T4 and T5. Arteriovenous O2 difference increased from T1 to T3 and then remained constant at T4 and T5. Maximal VO2 was greater at T3 (2.65 l X min-1), T4 (2.66 l X min-1), and T5 (2.60 l X min-1) than at T1 (2.41 l X min-1). Physical work capacity was greater at T3 (10,740 kg X m), T4 (10,980 kg X m), and T5 (10,380 kg X m) than at T1 (8,747 kg X m). Maximal values for Q, HR, and SV were unchanged from T1 through T5. At maximum, arteriovenous O2 difference and Hb flow rate increased from T1 to T3 and then remained constant at T4 and T5. The greater postreinfusion [Hb] improved O2 transport capacity and appeared to regulate circulatory responses.
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- "Since exercise changes blood vessel diameter , muscle blood flow, Tc and blood flow redistribution , the simple extrapolation of resting data to exercise is questionable. Accordingly, Buick et al. (1980) and Robertson et al. (1984) have determined that optimal haematocrit at rest was lower than that which obtained during exercise. While polycythaemia elevates haematocrit and blood viscosity, it has been shown that viscosity changes remain minimal for haematocrits less than 50% (Stone et al. 1968). "
ABSTRACT: Polycythaemia has been shown to improve physical performance, possibly due to increased arterial oxygen transport. Enhanced thermoregulatory function may also accompany this manipulation, since a greater proportion of the cardiac output becomes available for heat dissipation. We further examined this possibility in five trained men, who participated in three-phase heat stress trials (20 min rest, 20 min cycling at 30% peak power (Wpeak) and 20 min at 45% Wpeak at 38.3 (SEM 0.7) degrees C [relative humidity 41.4 (SEM 2.9)%]. Trials were performed during normocythaemia (control) and polycythaemia, obtained by reinfusion of autologous red blood cells and resulting in significant elevation of arterial oxygen transport. During the polycythaemic trials, the subjects demonstrated diminished thermal strain, as evidenced by a significant reduction in cardiac frequency (fc: 12 beats.min-1 lower throughout the test; P < 0.05), and reduced auditory canal temperatures (Tac) during the latter 20-min phase (P < 0.05). Forearm sweat onset was more rapid (363.0 compared to 1083.0 s; P < 0.05), and forearm sweat rate (msw) sensitivity was elevated from 1.80 to 2.91.mg.cm-2.min-1.degrees C-1 (P < 0.05). Forehead msw was depressed during the final 20 min, while forearm msw was greater during all test phases, averaging 0.94 and 1.20 mg.cm-2.min-1, respectively, over the 60 min. Skin blood flows for the upper back, upper arm and forearm were reduced (P < 0.05). Polycythaemia enhanced thermoregulation, through an elevation in forearm sweat sensitivity and msw, but not via increased cutaneous blood flow. These modifications occurred simultaneously with decreases in fc and Tac, resulting in greater thermal tolerance.European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 01/1995; 71(5):416-23. DOI:10.1007/BF00635875
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ABSTRACT: When current antidoping programmes were developed, the most frequently used doping agents were xenobiotics, such as stimulants and anabolic steroids, that are readily detectable in urine with the use of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. As control of traditional doping agents became effective, some athletes turned to other means to improve performance, including blood doping and the application of recombinant peptide hormones such as erythropoietin and growth hormone.Dopingwith these agents is not easily detected in urine samples, and therefore new strategies must be developed as a supplement to those already in use. Such strategies will probably include analysing blood samples, as several of the most promising methods that are able to detect modern doping agents use blood as the analytical matrix. Non-autologous blood doping results in an admixture of self and foreign red blood cells that can be detected in a blood sample with the methods available. Methods to indicate doping with erythropoietin include the indirect finding of an elevated level of soluble transferrin receptor in serum, or a direct demonstration of a shift from the normal to an abnormal spectrum of erythropoietin isoforms. To indicate doping with growth hormone, a set of serum parameters including insulin growth factors and their binding proteins are under investigation as indirect evidence. A direct method using isotopic differences between endogenous and recombinant growth hormones is being investigated. A similar method has been established to detect the administration of testosterone esters. Several legal and ethical questions must be solved before blood sampling can become a part of routine doping control, but themajor ethical question is whether sport can continue as today without proper methods to detect many modern doping agents.Sports Medicine 28(1). DOI:10.2165/00007256-199928010-00003 · 5.04 Impact Factor