Comparison of the teratogenic potential of inhaled ethylene glycol monomethyl ether in rats, mice, and rabbits.
ABSTRACT Studies to assess the effects of inhaled ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) on embryonal and fetal development were conducted on groups of Fischer 344 rats, CF-1 mice, and New Zealand White rabbits. Rabbits and rats were exposed to vapor concentrations of 0, 3, 10, or 50 ppm for 6 hr/day on Days 6 through 18, or Days 6 through 15 of gestation, respectively; mice were exposed to 0, 10, or 50 ppm on Days 6 through 15 of gestation. Exposure of pregnant rabbits to 50 ppm produced significant increases in the incidence of malformations, minor variations, and resorptions, as well as a decrease in fetal body weight. Rats and mice exposed to 50 ppm showed no evidence of a teratogenic effect, although indications of slight fetotoxicity were observed in both species. Transient decreases in maternal body weight gain among rats, mice, and rabbits exposed to 50 ppm were the only consistent signs of maternal effects. No significant treatment-related effects on fetal development were observed in any of the species tested at 10 ppm of EGME or below.
Article: PharmacogeneticsToxicology and Applied Pharmacology 01/1965; 7:27–38. DOI:10.1016/0041-008X(65)90109-2 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Radiofrequency (RF) radiation is used in a variety of workplaces where workers are concurrently exposed to chemicals. Combined exposure to RF radiation (10 MHz) and the industrial solvent, 2-methoxyethanol (2ME), produces enhanced teratogenicity in rats. The purpose of the present research was to determine if the synergistic effects noted for RF radiation and 2ME are generalizable to other chemicals. Since salicylic acid (SA) is widely used as an analgesic and is teratogenic in animals, SA was selected to address generalizability. Based on the literature and our pilot studies, 0, 250, or 350 mg/kg SA were administered by gavage on gestation Day 9 or 13 to rats. Concurrently rats given SA on Day 9 were exposed to RF radiation sufficient to maintain colonic temperature at 41°C for 60 min (or sham). Those given SA on Day 13 were also given 0 or 100 mg/kg 2ME (gavage). Dams were sacrificed on gestation Day 20, and the fetuses were examined for external malformations. The data provide no evidence of synergistic interactions between RF radiation and salicylic acid (resorptions and malformations). Limited evidence of antagonism was observed between 2ME and salicylic acid (fetal weights). This investigation highlights the importance of additional research on interactions in developmental toxicology, and emphasizes the need to consider combined exposure effects when developing both physical agent and chemical agent exposure guidelines and intervention strategies.Reproductive Toxicology 03/1999; 13(2):137-145. DOI:10.1016/S0890-6238(98)00071-9 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 2-Phenoxyethanol was applied to the clipped skin of pregnant rabbits on Days 6 through 18 of gestation in order to assess the fetotoxic and teratogenic potential by the dermal route. Rabbits were treated with 0, 300, 600, or 1000 mg/kg/day of 2-phenoxyethanol, and fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Dermal application of 1000 mg/kg/day produced maternal toxicity as evidenced by intravascular hemolysis of red blood cells and death in some animals. Maternal toxicity was observed in rabbits treated with 600 mg 2-phenoxyethanol/kg/day but at a lower incidence than that observed at 1000 mg/kg/day. Nine rabbits in the 1000 mg/kg/day dose group and five rabbits at 600 mg/kg/day died or were sacrificed in extremis. Rabbits in the two highest dose groups which survived until Day 28 of gestation showed no evidence of treatment-related effects. No signs of maternal toxicity were seen at 300 mg/kg/day. Examination of rabbit fetuses indicated that, at the dosages tested, 2-phenoxyethanol was not embryotoxic, fetotoxic, or teratogenic.Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 02/1987; 8(2):272-279. DOI:10.1016/0272-0590(87)90126-6