Assessment by attending physicians of a seminar method to improve clinical teaching.
ABSTRACT The authors in this article present assessments by attending physicians of a seminar method to improve clinical teaching. An experimental study was conducted to determine whether or not the seminar method (a) is perceived by attending physicians as beneficial, (b) modifies the physicians' attitudes toward teaching, (c) enables attending physicians to define needed teaching changes, (d) motivates them to improve their teaching performance, and (e) is perceived as having long-term benefits. Forty-six inpatient attending physicians from four California institutions participated in the study. The physicians were randomly assigned to an experimental group which attended a seminar on clinical teaching or to a control group which received no such intervention. Questionnaires completed by the physicians indicated that the teachers who experienced the seminar method perceived it as beneficial, improved their attitudes toward clinical teaching, determined needed teaching changes, attempted to implement new teaching approaches, and perceived long-term benefits.
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ABSTRACT: The process of teaching is ubiquitous in medicine, both in the practice of medicine and the promotion of medical science. Yet, until the last 50 years, the process of medical teaching had been neglected. To improve this process, the research group at the Stanford Faculty Development Center for Medical Teachers developed an educational framework to assist teachers to analyze and improve the teaching process. Utilizing empirical data drawn from videotapes of actual clinical teaching and educational literature, we developed a seven-category systematic scheme for the analysis of medical teaching, identifying key areas and behaviors that could enable teachers to enhance their effectiveness. The organizational system of this scheme is similar to that used in natural sciences, such as genetics. Whereas geneticists originally identified chromosomes and ultimately individual and related genes, this classification system identifies major categories and specific teaching behaviors that can enhance teaching effectiveness. Over the past two decades, this organizational framework has provided the basis for a variety of faculty development programs for improving teaching effectiveness. Results of those programs have revealed several positive findings, including the usefulness of the methods for a wide variety of medical teachers in a variety of settings. This research indicates that the development of a framework for analysis has been, as in the natural sciences, an important way to improve the science of the art of teaching.Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association 02/2007; 118:123-32.
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ABSTRACT: Aims: Evaluation of the effectiveness of clinical teaching is an important contribution for the quality control of medical teaching. This should be evaluated using a reliable instrument in order to be able to both gauge the status quo and the effects of instruction. In the Stanford Faculty Development Program (SFDP), seven categories have proven to be appropriate: Establishing the Learning Climate, Controlling a Teaching Session, Communication of Goals, Encouraging Understanding and Retention, Evaluation, Feedback and Self-directed Learning. Since 1998, the SFDP26 questionnaire has established itself as an evaluation tool in English speaking countries. To date there is no equivalent German-language questionnaire available which evaluates the overall effectiveness of teaching.Question:Development and theoretical testing of a German-language version of SFDP26 (SFDP26-German),Check the correlation of subscale of SFDPGerman against overall effectiveness of teaching.Methods: 19 anaesthetists (7 female, 12 male) from the University of Lübeck were evaluated at the end of a teaching seminar on emergency medical care using SFDP-German. The sample consisted of 173 medical students (119 female (68.8%) and 54 male (31.2%), mostly from the fifth semester (6.6%) and sixth semester (80.3%). The mean age of the students was 23±3 years. Results: The discriminatory power of all items ranged between good and excellent (r(it)=0.48-0.75). All subscales displayed good internal consistency (α=0.69-0.92) and significant positive inter-scale correlations (r=0.40-0.70). The subscales and "overall effectiveness of teaching" showed significant correlation, with the highest correlation for the subscale "communication of goals (p< 0.001; r = 0.61).Conclusion: The analysis of SFDP26-German confirms high internal consistency. Future research should investigate the effectiveness of the individual categories on the overall effectiveness of teaching and validate according to external criteria.GMS Zeitschrift für medizinische Ausbildung. 01/2011; 28(2):Doc30.
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ABSTRACT: Preparing healthcare professionals for teaching is regarded as essential to enhancing teaching effectiveness. Although many reports describe various faculty development interventions, there is a paucity of research demonstrating their effectiveness. To synthesize the existing evidence that addresses the question: "What are the effects of faculty development interventions on the knowledge, attitudes and skills of teachers in medical education, and on the institutions in which they work?" The search, covering the period 1980-2002, included three databases (Medline, ERIC and EMBASE) and used the keywords: staff development; in-service training; medical faculty; faculty training/development; continuing medical education. Manual searches were also conducted. Articles with a focus on faculty development to improve teaching effectiveness, targeting basic and clinical scientists, were reviewed. All study designs that included outcome data beyond participant satisfaction were accepted. From an initial 2777 abstracts, 53 papers met the review criteria. Data were extracted by six coders, using the standardized BEME coding sheet, adapted for our use. Two reviewers coded each study and coding differences were resolved through discussion. Data were synthesized using Kirkpatrick's four levels of educational outcomes. Findings were grouped by type of intervention and described according to levels of outcome. In addition, 8 high-quality studies were analysed in a 'focused picture'. The majority of the interventions targeted practicing clinicians. All of the reports focused on teaching improvement and the interventions included workshops, seminar series, short courses, longitudinal programs and 'other interventions'. The study designs included 6 randomized controlled trials and 47 quasi-experimental studies, of which 31 used a pre-test-post-test design. Despite methodological limitations, the faculty development literature tends to support the following outcomes: Overall satisfaction with faculty development programs was high. Participants consistently found programs acceptable, useful and relevant to their objectives. Participants reported positive changes in attitudes toward faculty development and teaching. Participants reported increased knowledge of educational principles and gains in teaching skills. Where formal tests of knowledge were used, significant gains were shown. Changes in teaching behavior were consistently reported by participants and were also detected by students. Changes in organizational practice and student learning were not frequently investigated. However, reported changes included greater educational involvement and establishment of collegiate networks. Key features of effective faculty development contributing to effectiveness included the use of experiential learning, provision of feedback, effective peer and colleague relationships, well-designed interventions following principles of teaching and learning, and the use of a diversity of educational methods within single interventions. Methodological issues: More rigorous designs and a greater use of qualitative and mixed methods are needed to capture the complexity of the interventions. Newer methods of performance-based assessment, utilizing diverse data sources, should be explored, and reliable and valid outcome measures should be developed. The maintenance of change over time should also be considered, as should process-oriented studies comparing different faculty development strategies. Faculty development activities appear highly valued by participants, who also report changes in learning and behavior. Notwithstanding the methodological limitations in the literature, certain program characteristics appear to be consistently associated with effectiveness. Further research to explore these associations and document outcomes, at the individual and organizational level, is required.Medical Teacher 10/2006; 28(6):497-526. · 1.82 Impact Factor