Accuracy of estimated phylogenetic trees from molecular data. II. Gene frequency data.
ABSTRACT The accuracies and efficiencies of three different methods of making phylogenetic trees from gene frequency data were examined by using computer simulation. The methods examined are UPGMA, Farris' (1972) method, and Tateno et al.'s (1982) modified Farris method. In the computer simulation eight species (or populations) were assumed to evolve according to a given model tree, and the evolutionary changes of allele frequencies were followed by using the infinite-allele model. At the end of the simulated evolution five genetic distance measures (Nei's standard and minimum distances, Rogers' distance, Cavalli-Sforza's f theta, and the modified Cavalli-Sforza distance) were computed for all pairs of species, and the distance matrix obtained for each distance measure was used for reconstructing a phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic tree obtained was then compared with the model tree. The results obtained indicate that in all tree-making methods examined the accuracies of both the topology and branch lengths of a reconstructed tree (rooted tree) are very low when the number of loci used is less than 20 but gradually increase with increasing number of loci. When the expected number of gene substitutions (M) for the shortest branch is 0.1 or more per locus and 30 or more loci are used, the topological error as measured by the distortion index (dT) is not great, but the probability of obtaining the correct topology (P) is less than 0.5 even with 60 loci. When M is as small as 0.004, P is substantially lower. In obtaining a good topology (small dT and high P) UPGMA and the modified Farris method generally show a better performance than the Farris method. The poor performance of the Farris method is observed even when Rogers' distance which obeys the triangle inequality is used. The main reason for this seems to be that the Farris method often gives overestimates of branch lengths. For estimating the expected branch lengths of the true tree UPGMA shows the best performance. For this purpose Nei's standard distance gives a better result than the others because of its linear relationship with the number of gene substitutions. Rogers' or Cavalli-Sforza's distance gives a phylogenetic tree in which the parts near the root are condensed and the other parts are elongated. It is recommended that more than 30 loci, including both polymorphic and monomorphic loci, be used for making phylogenetic trees. The conclusions from this study seem to apply also to data on nucleotide differences obtained by the restriction enzyme techniques.
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ABSTRACT: Divergent selection and adaptive divergence can increase phenotypic diversification amongst populations and lineages. Yet adaptive divergence between different environments, habitats or niches does not occur in all lineages. For example, the colonization of freshwater environments by ancestral marine species has triggered adaptive radiation and phenotypic diversification in some taxa but not in others. Studying closely related lineages differing in their ability to diversify is an excellent means of understanding the factors promoting and constraining adaptive evolution. A well-known example of the evolution of increased phenotypic diversification following freshwater colonization is the three-spined stickleback. Two closely related stickleback lineages, the Pacific Ocean and the Japan Sea occur in Japan. However, Japanese freshwater stickleback populations are derived from the Pacific Ocean lineage only, suggesting the Japan Sea lineage is unable to colonize freshwater. Using stable isotope data and trophic morphology, we first show higher rates of phenotypic and ecological diversification between marine and freshwater populations within the Pacific Ocean lineage, confirming adaptive divergence has occurred between the two lineages and within the Pacific Ocean lineage but not in the Japan Sea lineage. We further identified consistent divergence in diet and foraging behaviour between marine forms from each lineage, confirming Pacific Ocean marine sticklebacks, from which all Japanese freshwater populations are derived, are better adapted to freshwater environments than Japan Sea sticklebacks. We suggest adaptive divergence between ancestral marine populations may have played a role in constraining phenotypic diversification and adaptive evolution in Japanese sticklebacks.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e112404. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The genetic structure of the genus Alburnus is not well known and the phylogenetic relationships among its species are uncertain. In the present study, simple sequence repeats (SSRs or microsatellites) were used to evaluate genetic diversity and genetic differentiation between Alburnus mossulensis Heckel, 1843 from Kashgan River in Lorestan province and Alburnus caeruleus Heckel, 1843 from Gamasiab River in Kermanshah province. Thirty specimens from each species were collected and their genomic DNA was extracted. Polymerase chain reaction was performed using four pairs of SSR markers, including CypG24, BL1-2b, BL1-98 and Rser10, from which a total of 480 bands were amplified. The average observed and expected heterozygosities for both species were similar. In both species, except for Rser10 locus, all loci deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05). Average genetic distance and Fst values between the two species were 0.361 and 0.04, respectively. The AMOVA analysis revealed more interspecific (94%) than intraspecific (4%) genetic variation. Although four sets of SSR markers developed for other cyprinids showed high level of polymorphisms in the Iranian bleaks, they showed low genetic differentiation between them. Study on the possibility of genetic differentiation of two examined species by more microsatellite loci or other molecular markers such as amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) are recommended.Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences. 11/2014; 12(2):197-204.
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ABSTRACT: The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K = 1 to K = 20 were tested and population K = 3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K = 5 and K = 4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a valuable resource for future genomic studies and crop improvement strategies.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e113094. · 3.53 Impact Factor