Accuracy of estimated phylogenetic trees from molecular data. II. Gene frequency data.
ABSTRACT The accuracies and efficiencies of three different methods of making phylogenetic trees from gene frequency data were examined by using computer simulation. The methods examined are UPGMA, Farris' (1972) method, and Tateno et al.'s (1982) modified Farris method. In the computer simulation eight species (or populations) were assumed to evolve according to a given model tree, and the evolutionary changes of allele frequencies were followed by using the infinite-allele model. At the end of the simulated evolution five genetic distance measures (Nei's standard and minimum distances, Rogers' distance, Cavalli-Sforza's f theta, and the modified Cavalli-Sforza distance) were computed for all pairs of species, and the distance matrix obtained for each distance measure was used for reconstructing a phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic tree obtained was then compared with the model tree. The results obtained indicate that in all tree-making methods examined the accuracies of both the topology and branch lengths of a reconstructed tree (rooted tree) are very low when the number of loci used is less than 20 but gradually increase with increasing number of loci. When the expected number of gene substitutions (M) for the shortest branch is 0.1 or more per locus and 30 or more loci are used, the topological error as measured by the distortion index (dT) is not great, but the probability of obtaining the correct topology (P) is less than 0.5 even with 60 loci. When M is as small as 0.004, P is substantially lower. In obtaining a good topology (small dT and high P) UPGMA and the modified Farris method generally show a better performance than the Farris method. The poor performance of the Farris method is observed even when Rogers' distance which obeys the triangle inequality is used. The main reason for this seems to be that the Farris method often gives overestimates of branch lengths. For estimating the expected branch lengths of the true tree UPGMA shows the best performance. For this purpose Nei's standard distance gives a better result than the others because of its linear relationship with the number of gene substitutions. Rogers' or Cavalli-Sforza's distance gives a phylogenetic tree in which the parts near the root are condensed and the other parts are elongated. It is recommended that more than 30 loci, including both polymorphic and monomorphic loci, be used for making phylogenetic trees. The conclusions from this study seem to apply also to data on nucleotide differences obtained by the restriction enzyme techniques.
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ABSTRACT: We identified the Magnaporthe oryzae avirulence effector AvrPi9 cognate to rice blast resistance gene Pi9 by comparative genomics of requisite strains derived from a sequential planting method. AvrPi9 encodes a small secreted protein that appears to localize in the biotrophic interfacial complex and is translocated to the host cell during rice infection. AvrPi9 forms a tandem gene array with its paralogue proximal to centromeric region of chromosome 7. AvrPi9 is expressed highly at early stages during initiation of blast disease. Virulent isolate strains contain Mg-SINE within the AvrPi9 coding sequence. Loss of AvrPi9 did not lead to any discernible defects during growth or pathogenesis in M. oryzae. This study reiterates the role of diverse transposable elements as off-switch agents in acquisition of gain-of-virulence in the rice blast fungus. The prevalence of AvrPi9 correlates well with the avirulence pathotype in diverse blast isolates from the Philippines and China, thus supporting the broad-spectrum resistance conferred by Pi9 in different rice growing areas. Our results revealed that Pi9 and Piz-t at the Pi2/9 locus activate race specific resistance by recognizing sequence-unrelated AvrPi9 and AvrPiz-t genes, respectively. No claim to original Chinese government works New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.New Phytologist 02/2015; 206(4). DOI:10.1111/nph.13310 · 6.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The endangered Ryukyu tip-nosed frog Odorrana narina and its related species, Odorrana amamiensis, Odorrana supranarina, and Odorrana utsunomiyaorum, belong to the family Ranidae and are endemically distributed in Okinawa (O. narina), Amami and Tokunoshima (O. amamiensis), and Ishigaki and Iriomote (O. supranarina and O. utsunomiyaorum) Islands. Because of varying distribution patterns, this species complex is an intrinsic model for speciation and adaptation. For effective conservation and molecular ecological studies, further genetic information is needed. For rapid, cost-effective development of several microsatellite markers for these and 2 other species, we used next-generation sequencing technology of Ion Torrent PGM™. Distribution patterns of repeat motifs of microsatellite loci in these modern frog species (Neobatrachia) were similarly skewed. We isolated and characterized 20 new microsatellite loci of O. narina and validated cross-amplification in the three-related species. Seventeen, 16, and 13 loci were cross-amplified in O. amamiensis, O. supranarina, and O. utsunomiyaorum, respectively, reflecting close genetic relationships between them. Mean number of alleles and expected heterozygosity of newly isolated loci varied depending on the size of each inhabited island. Our findings suggested the suitability of Ion Torrent PGM™ for microsatellite marker development. The new markers developed for the O. narina complex will be applicable in conservation genetics and molecular ecological studies.Journal of Heredity 01/2015; 106(1):131-137. DOI:10.1093/jhered/esu071 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA) are extensively used as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. However, none of the BoLA genes in Southeast Asian breeds have been characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequence-based typing (SBT). Therefore, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 1120 individual cows belonging to the Holstein, Sahiwal, Simbrah, Jersey, Brahman, and Philippine native breeds using PCR-SBT. Several cross-breeds were also examined. BoLA-DRB3 PCR-SBT identified 78 previously reported alleles and five novel alleles. The number of BoLA-DRB3 alleles identified in each breed from the Philippines was higher (71 in Philippine native cattle, 58 in Brahman, 46 in Holstein × Sahiwal, and 57 in Philippine native × Brahman) than that identified in breeds from other countries (e.g., 23 alleles in Japanese Black and 35 in Bolivian Yacumeño cattle). A phylogenetic tree based on the DA distance calculated from the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency showed that Philippine native cattle from different Philippine islands are closely related, and all of them are closely similar to Philippine Brahman cattle but not to native Japanese and Latin American breeds. Furthermore, the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency in Philippine native cattle from Luzon Island, located in the Northern Philippines was different from that in cattle from Iloilo, Bohol, and Leyte Islands, which are located in the Southern Philippines. Therefore, we conclude that Philippine native cattle can be divided into two populations, North and South areas. Moreover, a neutrality test revealed that Philippine native cattle from Leyte showed significantly greater genetic diversity, which may be maintained by balancing selection. This study shows that Asian breeds have high levels of BoLA-DRB3 polymorphism. This finding, especially the identification of five novel BoLA-DRB3 alleles, will be helpful for future SBT studies of BoLA-DRB3 alleles in East Asian cattle.12/2014; 2. DOI:10.1016/j.mgene.2013.12.005