Resection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer.
ABSTRACT We studied 141 patients who had resection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer, considering all such lesions removed between 1948 and 1982. The study involved extended observations of patients described previously. Also included were 21 patients who had wedge resections of small metastases done since 1976, who, therefore, did not qualify for analysis of major hepatic resections reported recently (1980 and 1983). The overall five-year survival rate was 25%, significantly higher than that of a group of historical controls who had resectable metastases that were not removed. The size and nature of our extended sample allowed identification of some determinants of favorable prognosis: Dukes' stage of the primary lesion, absence of extrahepatic metastases, and being female. Contrary to our earlier observations, this study justified removal of some multiple hepatic metastases.
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ABSTRACT: The field of in situ destruction of liver tumors has expanded rapidly with various institutions' results suggesting that these methods represent viable palliative options, primarily because of the low associated morbidity and mortality. Despite this enthusiasm, clinical trials are needed to determine the true nature and degree of palliation. Treating a systemic disease such as colorectal liver metastases with local therapy strategies alone is of dubious value. In fact, it has been shown by most reports that the limiting factor inpatient outcome is disease progression rather than technical failure. For optimal results, physicians performing in situ ablation of liver lesions should be familiar with tumor biology and the natural history of the malignancy, and possess expertise in proper integration of other therapeutic modalities (eg, systemic chemotherapy and hepatic artery chemotherapy). Patients with liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma should therefore be evaluated for curability by a surgical oncologist within the context of a multidisciplinary team, as surgical resection remains the best treatment to achieve long-term survival. Such an assessment offers the patient the opportunity of a tailored therapy that may consist of hepatic resection, intravenous or regional chemotherapy, and local ablative therapy. Furthermore, results of RF ablation should be reported in terms of well-established oncological outcomes (eg, overall survival, disease-free survival, progression-free survival) that are more meaningful to the patient, rather than lesion-oriented outcomes. Because most of the ablative techniques have not yet been validated, it is imperative that well-designed clinical trials are conducted under the auspices of national cooperative groups. To consider them standard independent therapies otherwise would be premature.Surgical Clinics of North America 05/2004; 84(2):587-606. DOI:10.1016/j.suc.2003.12.007 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents an experience of thirty consecutive patients with hepatic colorectal metastases who were treated with hepatic cryotherapy and subsequent hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) chemotherapy using 5 FU. Patients with colorectal metastases confined to the liver but not suitable for resection, and with liver involvement of less than 50% were offered the treatment. Prospective documentation of all patients was undertaken with data being recorded on a computerised database. Patients had a median of 6 (2-15) lesions with sizes ranging from 1-12 cm. There was no 30 day mortality. Postoperative complications developed in 8 patients but were followed by full recovery in all instances. Side effects from chemotherapy occurred in 23% of cycles. Twenty seven patients have died. Median survival from the time of cryotherapy was 18.2 months (7-34), or 23 months (9-44) from diagnosis of liver lesions. Hepatic cryotherapy with subsequent arterial chemotherapy is safe and well tolerated. The results suggest survival of patients with colorectal hepatic metastases can be improved by the use of this modality of treatment.HPB Surgery 02/1998; 11(2):97-104. DOI:10.1155/1998/49496
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ABSTRACT: Resection of liver metastases in patients with colon cancer increases survival but success depends on removal of all tumour tissue. For this purpose, understanding of spatial relationships between metastases and liver architecture is essential. Because metastatic cancer growth is essentially a three-dimensional (3D) event, we decided to apply 3D reconstruction techniques to study these spatial relationships between metastases and liver structures such as blood vessels, stroma and the liver capsule (Glisson's capsule). Colon carcinoma metastases were experimentally induced in rat liver by injection of colon cancer cells (CC531) into the portal vein. Three weeks later, livers from these animals and control livers were removed and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. Thirty-seven to 110 consecutive sections were used for each 3D reconstruction of 26 metastases in eight livers. Contours of different structures were stained by (immuno)histochemical means, traced in each section and stored in a database. From the contour model, a volume model was generated. Among the 26 metastases, seven were found to grow distantly from the liver capsule. They were small and consisted of well-differentiated cancer cells that were totally surrounded by a basement membrane and stroma which was always connected with adjacent blood vessels of a portal tract. The remaining 19 metastases showed a more advanced pattern of development. Infiltration of poorly differentiated colon cancer cells progressed through the stroma at various sites and areas of direct contact between cancer cells and hepatocytes were frequently found. This type of outgrowth of cancer cells was only found when metastases had made contact with the liver capsule. However, some areas in sections of these advanced stages still resembled small metastases. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that stroma-affects the differentiation pattern of cancer cells and has at least a dual role in tumour growth. On the one hand it limits invasion of cancer cells in the surrounding host tissue. On the other hand, stroma formation at the capsule, which consists mainly of granulation tissue, facilitates outgrowth of the tumours. Furthermore, our 3D reconstructions demonstrate the spatial heterogeneity of larger metastases and the importance of a 3D approach to understand growth and development of metastases in general and colon cancer metastases in the liver in particular.Journal of Microscopy 08/1997; 187(Pt 1):12-21. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2818.1997.2140770.x · 2.15 Impact Factor
Duane M. Ilstrup